EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 10 - 2010 Num. article: 2010/195

Eichhornia crassipes plant community in the Nile Delta (Egypt)


The Egyptian cultivated lands are irrigated almost permanently by the Nile River through a huge network of canals and drains. The floristic composition and plant communities, including weeds, of the irrigation and drainage canals have been studied in the Nile Delta region. A total number of 113 plant species belonging to 93 genera belonging to 36 families was found in a survey launched undertaken 2003 and 2005. The recorded species were mainly therophytes (48%) and geophytes (14%). The floristic analysis of the study area revealed the following composition: 48 Mediterranean species (42%), 22 Cosmopolitan species (20%), 15 Pantropical species (13%), 14 Paleotropical species (12%) and 5 Neotropical species (4%). A statistical analysis of the plant species recorded distinguished 5 vegetation groups. Of particular interest is the fact that among these 5 groups, one is dominated and characterized by Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae, EPPO A2 List) which attained the highest mean importance value. The species associated to this group are listed below with their origin according to the Germplasm Resources Information Network:

Species and family
Origin
Alternanthera sessilis (Amaranthaceae)
Asia
Arundo donax (Poaceae)
Asia
Azolla filiculoides (Salviniaceae) (EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants)
Americas
Beta vulgaris (Amaranthaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae)
Cosmopolitan
Chenopodium glaucum (Amaranthaceae)
Asia, Europe, N-America.
Chenopodium murale (Amaranthaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae)
Pantropical
Corchorus olitorius (Malvaceae)
Asia
Cynanchum acutum (Apocynaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae)
Europe
Cyperus alopecuroides (Cyperaceae)
Africa, Asia, Australasia, S-America
Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae)
Africa, Asia, Australasia, Americas
Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae)
Cosmopolitan
Echinochloa stagnina (Poaceae)
Africa, Asia
Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae)
Americas
Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) (EPPO A2 List)
Americas
Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae)
Asia, Africa, Europe, Australasia
Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae)
Americas
Kochia indica (Amaranthaceae)
Asia
Lemna gibba (Araceae)
Cosmopolitan
Ludwigia stolonifera (Onagraceae)
Africa
Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Nymphaea caerulea (Nymphaeaceae)
Africa, Asia
Paspalidium geminatum (Poaceae)
Africa, Asia, Americas
Persicaria lapathifolia (Polygonaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Persicaria decipiens (Polygonaceae)
Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe
Persicaria senegalensis (Polygonaceae)
Africa, Asia
Phragmites australis (Poaceae)
Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, Americas
Pistia stratiotes (Araceae, EPPO Alert List)
Africa, Asia, Australasia, Americas
Pluchea dioscoridis (Asteraceae)
Africa
Poa annua (Poaceae)
Europe
Polypogon monspeliensis (Poaecae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae)
Tropical and subtropical
Potamogeton crispus (Potamogetonaceae)
Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe
Ranunculus sceleratus (Ranunculaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe, N-America
Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae)
Asia, Europe
Saccharum spontaneum (Poaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Setaria viridis (Poaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Sorghum virgatum (Poaceae)
Africa
Spergularia marina (Caryophyllaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe, N-America
Symphyotrichum squamatum (Asteraceae)
S-America
Typha domingensis (Typhaceae)
Cosmopolitan
Verbena supine (Verbenaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe
Veronica anagallis-aquatica (Plantaginaceae)
Africa, Asia, Europe, S-America

Sources

Mashaly IA, El-Habashy IE, El-Halawany EF, Omar G (2009) Habitat and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and drainage canal bank habitat. Pakistan journal of Biological sciences 12: 885-895.USDA, Germplasm Resources
Information Network http://www.ars-grin.gov/