New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Morocco on blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). The pest was first found in March 2018 near Agadir. Surveys conducted in March and April 2019 in the main blueberry-growing regions (Loukkos, Gharb, Souss-Massa) showed that 68% of the surveyed blueberry farms were infested by D. oxycoccana, mainly in Souss-Massa and Gharb regions and to a lesser extent in Loukkos. During these studies, Drosophila suzukii (EPPO A2 List) and Halyomorpha halys (formerly EPPO Alert List) were also found. This is the first time that H. halys is reported from Morocco. H. halys was observed in Souss-Massa and Loukkos regions (Nouere et al., 2019). The situation of both D. oxycocanna and H. halys in Morocco can be described as follows: Present, not widely distributed.
Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi, the causal agent of chestnut brown rot, is first reported from Portugal. It was detected during surveys in 2018 in chestnut orchards (Castanea sativa) in the Trás‐os‐Montes region of Portugal. G. smithogilvyi had been also identified in an industrial processing plant in 2017, 2018 and 2019 and the proportion of infected nuts were 8.0, 5.3 and 5.0% respectively (Coelho & Gouveia, 2021). Present, not widely distributed.
- Detailed records
In Ukraine, the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) was reported in 18 of the 25 regions during surveys conducted in 2017-2018, on 4474 ha in total. It is not present in Central and Southern Ukraine (Poltava, Kirovohrad, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, Zaporizhzhia, Donetsk regions and Autonomous Republic of Crimea) (Borzykh et al., 2021). Present, not widely distributed.
In Portugal, Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was first reported in Madeira in 2005 and in the mainland in Algarve region in 2006. Naves et al. (2021) report that in 2020 it spread further North and caused significant damage on avocado (Persea americana) in the region of Óbidos (Centro region). Present, not widely distributed.
In Australia, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – EPPO A1 List) was first reported in Torres Strait (late January 2020). The pest then spread to other states: Queensland (February 2020), Northern Territory and Western Australia (March 2020), and New South Wales (October 2020). In December 2020, S. frugiperda was found in Victoria, and in March 2021 in Norfolk Island and Tasmania. However, as S. frugiperda is a tropical/subtropical pest, it is still unknown whether it will be able to survive winter in the southernmost regions of Australia (IPPC, 2021). Present, in all parts of the area.
In Indonesia, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – EPPO A1 List) was first found in 2019 in Sumatra, and then in Java and Kalimantan (EPPO RS 2019/139). In January 2020, the pest was also found in maize (Zea mays) crops in several districts in East Nusa Tenggara, including the East Flores district. Studies conducted in this district showed that S. frugiperda caused severe damage in the sub-districts of West Solor and Ile Mandiri where 80 to 100% of the maize fields were infested (Mukkun et al., 2021). Present, not widely distributed.
In Australia, citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (EPPO A1 List) was detected in April 2018 in the Northern Territory and Western Australia on potted citrus (Citrus aurantiifolia) plants (EPPO RS 2019/223). In April 2021, after a successful eradication program, citrus canker has been officially declared to be absent from all Australian states and territories (IPPC, 2021). Absent: pest eradicated.
- Host plants
In Florida (US), Gymnosporangium clavipes (EPPO A1 List) was found in March 2020 in a Crataegus marshallii (Rosaceae) tree which displayed stem galls (McVay et al., 2020).
EU emergency measures against pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO A2 List) have been repealed. This virus is now regulated as a Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest (RNQP) for tomato plants for planting (Solanum lycopersicum) (EU, 2020).
The brown citrus aphid, previously named Toxoptera citricidus (Hemiptera: Aphididae – EPPO A2 list) is now placed again in the genus Aphis and thus should be called Aphis citricidus. Morphological and molecular studies have concluded that Toxoptera should be considered as a subgenus of Aphis (Lagos et al., 2014).
Borzykh OI, Sigareva DD, Fedorenko OL, Bondar TI, Kornyushin VV, Sokolova OO, Karpliuk VG (2021) Current distribution of golden potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis (Tylenchida, Heteroderidae), in Ukraine. Zoodiversity 55(2), 167–174. https://doi.org/10.15407/zoo2021.02.167
Coelho V, Gouveia E (2021) Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi, the causal agent of chestnut brown rot reported from Portugal. New Disease Report 43, e12007. https://doi.org/10.1002/ndr2.12007
EU (2020) Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/1549 of 22 October 2020 repealing Decision 2004/200/EC on measures to prevent the introduction into and the spread within the Community of Pepino mosaic virus. OJL 354, 26.10.2020, 7–8. http://data.europa.eu/eli/dec_impl/2020/1549/oj
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Australia (AUS-100/1 of 2021-04-30) Eradication of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (citrus canker) from Australia. https://www.ippc.int/fr/countries/australia/pestreports/2021/04/eradication-of-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-citrus-canker-from-australia/
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Australia (AUS-101/1 of 2021-05-05) Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) detections Australia. https://www.ippc.int/fr/countries/australia/pestreports/2021/05/spodoptera-frugiperda-fall-armyworm-detections-australia/
Lagos DM, Voegtlin DJ, Coeur d’acier A, Giordano R (2014) Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species groups found in the Midwestern United States and their contribution to the phylogenetic knowledge of the genus. Insect Science 21, 374–391. https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12089
McVay JD, Jones C, Carroll C, Denfeld N, Urbina H (2021) First report of Gymnosporangium clavipes causing stem galls on Crataegus marshallii in Florida, U.S.A. Plant Disease 105(4), p 1214. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2383-PDN
Mukkun L, Kleden YL, Simamora AV (2021) Detection of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize field in East Flores District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. International Journal of Tropical Drylands 5, 20-26.
Naves P, Nóbrega F, Auger P (2021) Updated and annotated review of Tetranychidae occurring in mainland Portugal, the Azores, and Madeira Archipelagos. Acarologia 61(2), 380-393. https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214437
Nouere S, Amiri S, Lahlali R (2019) Situation des problèmes phytosanitaires du myrtillier (Vaccinium corymbosum) au Maroc. Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires 8(3), 321-330