New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Brevipalpus yothersi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae - vector of citrus leprosis disease, EPPO A1 List) is reported for the first time from Peru. During a survey conducted from September to December 2020 in small farms producing organic cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the pest was found in 8 localities in the department of Piura. Mites were collected on leaves, peduncles, and epicarps of cocoa fruits at different phenological stages. Damage (brown spots) could be observed on some fruits. This is also the first time that B. yothersi is reported on cocoa (Escobar-Garcia et al., 2021). Present, only in some areas.
Fusarium odoratissimum (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4) the causal agent of Panama disease of banana was first reported in Peru in April 2021. The pathogen was detected in a plot of 0.5 ha in the Querecotillo district (province of Sullana, department of Piura). All infected plants have been destroyed and official phytosanitary measures have been taken to prevent any further spread (SENASA, 2021). Present, only in some areas.
Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, EPPO A1 List) is first recorded in Kenya (Buddie et al., 2021). It was detected at two locations (Tebere and Ndekia) in the Mwea irrigation scheme. Surveys were conducted in September 2020 and the identification was confirmed by molecular methods. This is the first confirmed report of P. canaliculata in continental Africa. Present, only in some areas.
Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, EPPO A1 List) occurs in Peru. The apple snail was first recorded in the province of Sullana (department of Piura). Official surveys are conducted to define the infested area and control measures are applied (SENASA, 2021). Present, only in some areas.
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) was first found in Mauritius in March 2019. The pest also occurs on Rodrigues Islands. Studies are being conducted in Mauritius on potential natural enemies and awareness campaigns are being carried out (Anonymous, 2020). Present.
Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in Mauritius in September 2019. The insect was trapped in Bon Air. Surveys carried out on the island detected only one larva in a tomato leaflet in a small field. Awareness campaigns are being carried out (Anonymous, 2020). Present, only in some areas.
Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) is first reported from Bangladesh. This fruit fly was caught in yeast-banana traps in the Northern part of the country (Rahman et al., 2020). Present.
- Detailed records
Official surveys have confirmed that Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) is no longer found in the province of Alberta, Canada. In February 2021, the NPPO of Canada removed the regulated area for G. rostochiensis and declared that Alberta is now considered to be free of potato cyst nematodes (NAPPO, 2021).
The pest status of Globodera rostochiensis in Canada is officially declared as: Present, not widely distributed and under official control.
- Host plants
Hylotelephium spectabile (=Sedum spectabile – Crassulaceae) is reported for the first time as a host plant of Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae – EPPO A2 List). In mid-August 2020, larvae of C. pronubana were found feeding on H. spectabile plants in private gardens in urban areas of Drama, Greece. Infestations had caused serious damage on foliage as well as on blossoms, reducing the aesthetical value of this ornamental plant (Simoglou et al., 2021).
- New pests and taxonomy
In Australia, a new phytoplasma species called ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma stylosanthis’ has been detected in the following cultivated plants causing various symptoms: Arachis pintoi (little leaf), Carica papaya (yellow crinkle), Medicago sativa (yellowing and little leaf), Solanum tuberosum (stunted growth and little leaf), Saccharum officinarum (asymptomatic), and Stylosanthes scabra (little leaf). Concerning potato, ‘Ca. P. stylosanthis’ was detected in 2019 in Victoria in one plant and it is estimated that the disease incidence was less than 1% of crop. This phytoplasma has also been found in two weed species, Bonamia pannosa and Indigofera linifolia, which showed proliferation, phyllody and little leaf symptoms (Rodrigues Jardim et al., 2021).
Anonymous (2020) Annual Report – Technical Highlights 2019/2020. Food and Agricultural Research and Extension Institute (FAREI), Mauritius, 89 pp. http://farei.mu/farei/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Technical-Highlights-2019-2020.pdf
Buddie AG, Rwomushana I, Offord LC, Kibet S, Makale F, Djeddour D, Cafa G, Vincent KK, Muvea AM, Chacha D, Day RK (2021) First report of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata in Kenya. CABI Agriculture and Bioscience 2, 11 https://doi.org/10.1186/s43170-021-00032-z
Escobar Garcia HA, de Andrade Jr D, Carrillo D, Ochoa R (2021) Theobroma cacao, a new host for Brevipalpus yothersi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Peru. Acarologia 61(2), 211216. https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214427
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System. Official Pest Reports. Canada (2021-04-01) Globodera rostochiensis (golden nematode) - Canadian Food Inspection Agency removes regulated area in the Province of Alberta. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/globodera-rostochiensis-golden-nematode-canadian-food-inspection-agency
Rahman S, Roy DK, Alam MS (2020) First record of Zaprionus indianus (Gupta, 1970) (Diptera Drosophilidae) from Bangladesh. Biodiversity Journal 11(3), 757–760. https://doi.org/10.31396/Biodiv.Jour.2020.11.3.757.760
Rodrigues Jardim B, Kinoti WM, Tran-Nguyen LTT, Gambley C, Rodoni B, Constable F (2021) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma stylosanthis’, a novel taxon with a diverse host range in Australia, characterised using multilocus sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, secA, tuf, and rp genes. International Journal of Systematic Microbiology 71, 004589. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004589
SENASA (2021-02-25) MIDAGRI despliega acciones de prevención y control de caracol manzana en Piura. https://www.gob.pe/institucion/senasa/noticias/344331-midagri-despliega-acciones-de-prevencion-y-control-de-caracol-manzana-en-piura
SENASA (2021-04-12) SENASA confirma brote de Fusarium Raza 4 Tropical en Piura. https://www.gob.pe/institucion/senasa/noticias/429832-senasa-confirma-brote-de-fusarium-raza-4-tropical-en-piura
Simoglou KB, Avtzis DN, Baixeras J, Sarigkoli I, Roditakis E (2021) Hylotelephium spectabile, a new host for carnation tortrix moth (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) and molecular characterization in Greece. Insects 12, 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030245