New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus – EU Annexes) is reported for the first time from China. In September 2019, symptoms of leaf mosaic and crinkling were observed on soybean (Glycine max) in 3 locations in Anhui province. It was estimated that the disease incidence reached 20 to 40% in affected fields. The identity of the virus was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and inoculation tests (Wei et al., 2020). Present, only in some areas (Anhui province).
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) is reported for the first time from Algeria. It was detected by RT-PCR from 8 grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) collected in 3 regions (Medéa, Alger, Boumerdes). The affected grapevine plants showed leaf deformation but not the typical leaf mottling and deformation symptoms. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis also detected the presence of grapevine fleck virus (EU Annexes), grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, grapevine virus B, grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus, hop stunt viroid (EU Annexes) and grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 for the first time in Algeria (Eichmeier et al., 2020). Present, only in some areas.
Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from Greece. Virus-like symptoms were observed during autumn 2018 and winter 2019 in 4 fields of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Kalamos, Marathonas and Leonidio (central and south-eastern Greece). In all cases, the disease affected 30 to 40% of the plants. The identity of the virus has been confirmed by ELISA and molecular tests (Beris et al., 2020). Present, only in some areas.
- Detailed records
In China, the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (EPPO A2 List) is causing severe damage to Pinus tabuliformis in Liaoning province. The vector was shown to be Monochamus saltuarius (Pan et al., 2020).
The vector of rose rosette virus (Emaravirus, RRV), Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (Acari: Eriophyidae – both EPPO A1 List) has been detected for the first time in Florida (US). During a specific survey, P. fructiphilus was found in February 2019 in rose samples collected from Tallahassee (Leon county). The mite was then found in other locations near the initial finding site. Although the presence of RRV has previously been reported from Florida, none of the mite-infested roses showed symptoms of rose rosette disease and none tested positive for rose rosette virus (Fife et al., 2020).
- Host plants
Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO A1 List) is an important pathogen of cucurbits causing bacterial fruit blotch disease. In Israel, the bacterium was isolated in 2012 and 2014 from diseased eggplant (Solanum melongena) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Infected plants presented necrotic spots on leaves. Tests showed that the 2 isolates belong to Group II (Chalupowicz et al., 2020).
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List), has been detected in Chrysanthemum indicum in Karnakata (India). Affected plants were showing mosaic, mottling and leaf curling symptoms and were infested by Bemisia tabaci (Ashwathappa et al., 2020).
In California (US), Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in two symptomatic plants of Arctostaphylos viridissima and A. glauca (Ericaceae – both endemic to California), collected from a botanical garden and a nursery, respectively. On both affected plants, leaves exhibited necrotic spots, some of which extended into the stems as cankers. The identity of the pathogen was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods, as well as by pathogenicity tests (Rooney-Latham et al., 2020).
Ashwathappa KV, Venkataravanappa V, Lakshminarayana Reddy CN, Krishna Reddy M (2020) Association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with mosaic and leaf curl disease of chrysanthemum and its whitefly cryptic species. Indian Phytopathology 73, 533–542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42360-020-00214-1
Beris D, Malandraki I, Kektsidou O, Vassilakos N, Varveri C (2020) First report of impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting lettuce in Greece. Plant Disease 104(10), p 2742.
Chalupowicz L, Reuven M, Dror O, Sela N, Burdman S, Manulis-Sasson S (2020) Characterization of Acidovorax citrulli strains isolated from solanaceous plants. Plant Pathology (in press) https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.13239
Eichmeier A, Peňázová E, Čechová J, Berraf-Tebbal A (2020) Survey and diversity of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in Algeria and comprehensive High-Throughput Small RNA Sequencing analysis of two Isolates from Vitis vinifera cv. Sabel revealing high viral diversity. Genes 11, 1110. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091110
Fife A, Bolton S, Griesheimer JL, Paret M, Martini X (2020) First report of Phyllocoptes fructiphilus Keifer (Eriophyidae), the vector of the rose rosette virus, in Florida, USA. Florida Entomologist 103(3), 411-414.
Pan L, Li Y, Cui R, Liu Z, Zhang X (2020) Monochamus saltuarius endangers Pinus tabuliformis Carr. and carries Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) in China. Forests 11(10), 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101051
Rooney-Latham S, Blomquist CL, Soriano MC, Uhler M (2020) First report of Phytophthora ramorum causing foliar and stem blight of two California native Arctostaphylos species, A. viridissima and A. glauca. Plant Disease 104(10), p 2741. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1359-PDN
Wei ZY, Wu GW, Ye ZX, Jiang C, Mao CY, Zhang HH, Miao RP, Yan F, Li JM, Chen JP, Sun ZT (2020) First report of cowpea mild mottle virus infecting soybean in China. Plant Disease 104(9), p 2534. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-20-0063-PDN