First report of Diaphorina citri in Ethiopia, and details of the distribution of Trioza erytreae
Ajene et al. (2020) conducted surveys in Ethiopia between June and November 2017 in citrus-growing regions ranging from 900 to 2460 m above sea level (asl) for the two vectors of huanglongbing, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae – EPPO A2 List) and Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, EPPO A1 List). Surveys were conducted in 70 sites in Amhara, Oromia, and Tigray regions and included sampling in large orchards, small-scale rural farms, and backyard gardens. Psyllids were identified morphologically following EPPO Diagnostic Protocols and molecular analysis (mt COI sequencing) were conducted to determine haplotypes.
No vectors were detected in Oromia and Tigray regions. The presence of D. citri was detected in 5 sites in the North Wollo district (Amhara region), all in backyard gardens, located between 1619 and 2112 m asl. In total 28 adults were collected. This is the first record of D. citri in Ethiopia. The analysis of the COI sequences from Ethiopia revealed that a new haplotype of the psyllid is present in Ethiopia, which is closer to the haplotype from Brazil than to the haplotype from Kenya and Tanzania.
T. erytreae occurred mostly in the highland areas of Amhara (districts of Gondar and Gojjam) between 1867 and 2460 m asl. It was found on citrus plants and other host plants such as Casimiroa edulis (white sapote) and Clausena anisata. T. erytreae was not found at the locations where D. citri was detected during the survey.
Another article by Hailu & Wakgari (2019) describes surveys conducted in May 2018 in crops of Casimiroa edulis in Eastern Ethiopia (region of Oromia, Dire Dawa and Harari). T. erytreae was recorded causing high levels of damage in this crop in the region of Oromia (zone of Eastern Hararghe and West Hararghe) and Harari.
The situation of Diaphorina citri in Ethiopia can be described as: Present, restricted distribution.
Ajene IJ, Khamis F, Ballo S, Pietersen G, van Asch B, Seid N, Azerefegne F, Ekesi S, Mohamed S (2020) Detection of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ethiopia: a new haplotype and its implication to the proliferation of Huanglongbing. Journal of Economic Entomology 113(4), 1640–1647. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa113
Hailu T, Wakgari M (2019) Distribution and damage of African citrus psyllids (Trioza erytreae) in Casimiroa edulis producing areas of the Eastern Zone of Ethiopia. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology 4(3), 741–750. http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/4.3.22