New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Grapevine red blotch virus (Grablovirus, GRBV – EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Argentina. A specific survey was conducted in 2018 in the provinces of Mendoza and San Juan and 188 grapevine plants, including wine and table grape cultivars, as well as rootstock genotypes, were tested. GRBV was detected in 1 sample of Vitis vinifera cv. Flame Seedless. The affected plant did not show any particular virus symptoms (Luna et al., 2019). Present.
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) was reported for the first time from Belgium in 2018. GPGV was then also detected in samples collected from a vineyard in the province of Namur. In this vineyard, some samples were also infected by Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (Foveavirus). No particular symptoms were observed in this vineyard (Massart et al., 2020). Present.
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) is reported for the first time from Iran. In 2016-2017, samples (leaves and canes) showing leaf deformation, mottling, vein clearing and necrotic spots were collected from grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in different regions. GPGV was detected in 6 (out of 30) tested samples (Tokhmechi and Koolivand, 2020). Present.
In Northern Thailand, Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii (EPPO A2 List) were detected in rice (Oryza sativa) crops during surveys conducted from 2014 to 2017. Affected rice plants were showing leaf blight symptoms (Arayaskul et al., 2020). Present.
In Russia, Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) was detected in peach (Prunus persica) samples collected in Sochi (Southern Russia) and in the Gulripshsky district in Abkhazia (Mikhailova et al., 2020). Present, only in some areas.
In Spain Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae, formerly EPPO A2 List) was first detected in 2014 in traps placed in a plot of Juglans regia located in the municipality of Crespià, Girona province, in the Autonomous Region of Cataluña. In 2019, new individuals have been collected from traps placed in a plot of walnut trees (J. regia) grown under organic production located in the same municipality. Present, under eradication. (NPPO of Spain 2020-01).
In Tunisia, unusual damage was observed in October 2019 on Carissa macrocarpa fruit, in the ornamental nursery of the Higher Agronomic Institute (ISA CM), Chott Mariem (Sousse). Fruit samples were collected and brought to the laboratory for observation. After a few days, Zaprionus indianus, Z. tuberculatus (both Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO Alert List), and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) emerged from infested fruit. This is the first time that Z. indianus and Z. tuberculatus are recorded in Tunisia, as well as the first time that Carissa macrocarpa (Apocynaceae) is recorded as a host for these three insect species (Ben Halima Kamel et al., 2020). Present, only in some areas.
In China, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (EPPO A2 List) was detected in 2017 in Hailun county on Physalis pubescens (Solanaceae). Leaves of affected plants showed water-soaked spots and brown interveinal necrotic lesions with chlorotic margins (Song et al., 2019).
- Detailed records
In South Carolina (US), cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Crinivirus - EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2019. The virus was detected in symptomatic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plants in a research trial in Charleston (Kousik and Adkins, 2020).
In China, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (EPPO A2 List) also occurs in the provinces of Chonqing, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, and Yunnan (Ye et al., 2020).
In Italy, Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Achatinidae - giant African snail) was first found in October 2018 in Emilia-Romagna region (EPPO RS 2019/039). Further surveys were performed, and no other specimens were found.
The pest status of Achatina fulica in Italy is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
- Host plants
Cherry rasp leaf virus (Cheravirus, CRLV - EPPO A1 List) has been detected in symptomatic high tunnel grown tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) in Minnesota (US). The virus was identified by high throughput sequencing (Bratsch et al., 2020)
‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in plum (Prunus domestica) trees in the Mafraq region, in Northeastern Jordan. Affected trees showed symptoms of leaf yellowing and reddening, as well as stunted growth and witches’ broom (Salem et al., 2020).
Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Camellia oleifera in a nursery in Hainan, China. Affected C. oleifera seedlings showed slow growth, leaf chlorosis, leaf fall, and root galls (Zhu et al., 2020).
Potato yellowing virus (Ilarvirus, PYV – EPPO A1 List) has been detected in Solanum quitoense (naranjilla) in Tumbaco (Pichincha province), Ecuador. Affected plants showed generalized chlorosis, interveinal yellowing and chlorosis, and leaf curling (Ramos et al., 2020).
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List), has been detected in Physalis minima in Pakistan. Affected plants were showing severe mottling and leaf curling symptoms. These plants were growing as weeds in and around fields of Luffa acutangula which were also affected by ToLCNDV (Zubair et al., 2020).
- New pests
A new fungal disease of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) has been described from Sicily, Italy. The disease was first observed in 2017 in a farm in the province of Catania. Affected plants showed necrotic lesions on the crown, roots and stems. Studies confirmed that the causal agent of this disease is a new species called Ochraceocephala foeniculi gen. et sp. nov. (Aiella et al., 2020).
Abou Kubaa R, Choueiri E, Jreijiri F, El Khoury Y, Saldarelli P (2020) First report of grapevine Pinot gris virus in Lebanon and the Middle East. Journal of Plant Pathology 102, p 565. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00453-w
Aiello D, Vitale A, Polizzi D, Voglmayr H (2020) Ochraceocephala foeniculi gen. et sp. nov., a new pathogen causing crown rot of fennel in Italy. MycoKeys 66, 1-22. https://mycokeys.pensoft.net/article/48389/
Arayaskul N, Poompouang S, Lithanatudom P, Lithanatudom SK (2020) First report of a leaf blight in rice (Oryza sativa) caused by Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii in Thailand. Plant Disease 104(2), p 562. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-19-1038-PDN
Ben Halima Kamel M, Ben Cheik Z, Zouari S, Mdellel L, Balmès V (2020) First report of Zaprionus indianus and Z. tuberculatus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Tunisia. EPPO Bulletin 50 (early view). https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12662
Bratsch SA, Grinstead S, Lockhart B, Mollow D (2020) Biological properties and genomic sequence of an isolate of cherry rasp leaf virus from tomato. Journal of Plant Pathology https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-020-00522-5
Kousik CS, Adkins S (2020) Detection of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus infecting watermelon in South Carolina. Plant Health Progress 21(2) (abstract). https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-03-20-0016-BR
Luna F, Debat H, Moyano S, Zavallo D, Asurmendi S, Gomez-Talquenca S (2019) First report of grapevine red blotch virus infecting grapevine in Argentina. Journal of Plant Pathology 101, p 1239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00298-3
NPPO of Italy (2020-05).
NPPO of Spain (2020-01).
Massart S, Vankerkoven L, Blouin AG, Nourinejhad Zarghani S, Wetzel T (2020) First report of Grapevine Pinot Gris virus and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus in grapevine in Belgium. Plant Disease 104(6), 1879. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2071-PDN
Mikhailova YV, Karpun NN, Pantiya GG (2020) [Identification of species of the genus Monilinia by PCR-analysis]. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia 60(1), 186-191 (in Russian).
Ramos K, Sivaprasad Y, Guevara F, Ochoa-Corona F, Viera W, Flores F (2020) Occurrence of potato yellowing virus in naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) in Ecuador. Journal of Plant Pathology 102, p 597. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00479-0
Salem NM, Tahzima T, Odeh S, Abdeen AO, Massart S, Goedefroit T, De Jonghe K (2020) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ infecting plum (Prunus domestica) in Jordan. Plant Disease 104(2), p 563. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-19-0156-PDN
Song S, Zhang Y, Liu H, Pan CQ, Yang MX, Ding JF, Zhang JH (2019) Isolation and characterization of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria causing bacterial spot in Physalis pubescens in Northeast China. Journal of Plant Pathology 101, 361–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-018-0193-9
Tokhmechi K, Koolivand D (2020) First report of grapevine Pinot gris virus infecting grapevine in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology 102, p 549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00437-w
Ye Z, Wei P, Xue S, Liu P, Jia B, Heng W, Zhu LW (2020) Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3 strain and cultivar tolerance to kiwifruit bacterial canker in China. Journal of Plant Pathology 102, 443–450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00459-4
Zu JC, Liu JA, Zhou GY (2020) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on Camellia oleifera in China. Plant Disease 104(5), p 1563. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1162-PDN
Zubair M, Ali Khan RA, Ali A, Ullah N, Ahmad S, Hyder M, Ahmad M, Mushtaq A, Akhtar KP (2020) First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Physalis minima in Pakistan. Plant Disease 104(6), p 1878. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-19-2607-PDN