New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO A2 List) was recently recorded in Albania (Nugnes et al., 2020). Present.
In Algeria, Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) was detected for the first time in symptomatic samples of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and courgette (Cucurbita pepo) collected from field crops in Northern Algeria. CCYV was detected only in mixed infections with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) (Kheireddine et al., 2020). Present, no details.
In Israel, Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) was detected for the first time in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in 2016 (Luria et al., 2019). Present, no details.
In Iraq, citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri pv. citri– EPPO A1 List) was detected on tangerine (Citrus reticulata), lemon (Citrus limon), and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) from different orchards in Diyala, Baghdad and Babylon Governorates (Al-Dulaimi et al. 2018). Present, only in some areas.
- Detailed records
In China, a survey was conducted between 2010 and 2018 to assess the presence of Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO A1 List), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits, in commercial seed lots. The prevalence of A. citrulli-infested seed lots was highest in lots produced in Gansu province (26%), followed by Ningxia (21%), Xinjiang (19%), and Inner Mongolia (11%). The bacterium is also reported at lower prevalence in seed lots produced in Anhui, Fujian, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanghai, Shānxi (Tian et al., 2020).
In the USA, Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) was found in 2018 in one sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) field in Louisiana. Eradication measures have been taken. It is suspected that the source of this outbreak is the introduction of infested sweet potato planting material from North Carolina (Internet, 2020).
In India, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) has recently been reported in the Northern part of Goa. The pest was found on fodder maize (Zea mays), grasses (Brachiaria mutica, Megathyrsus maximus), and Amaranthus viridis (Maruthadurai and Ramesh, 2020).
- New host plants
During surveys in Italy, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO A2 List) was recorded from 11 new host plants: Ailanthus altissima, Arbutus unedo, Citrus medica, C. reticulata, Clematis vitalba, Pistacia vera, Prunus avium, P. cerasus, P. domestica, Rosa banksiae and R. x damascena. It can be noted that these new host species include important crops for the Mediterranean Basin, as well as the invasive plant Ailanthus altissima (Nugnes et al., 2020).
Fusarium circinatum (EPPO A2 List), the causal agent of pitch canker of pine, was recovered from the symptomless Californian native grass, Bromus carinatus (Poaceae). These isolates were then shown to be pathogenic to Pinus radiata in artificial inoculation tests (Carter & Gordon, 2020).
Al-Dulaimi FTR, Al-Kaisse AA, Al-Rubaye LA, Abdulwadood MA (2018) First report of citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in Iraq. Journal of Biotechnology Research Center 12(2), 24-31. https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=160915
Carter JW, Gordon TR (2020) Infection of the native California grass, Bromus carinatus, by Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines. Plant Disease 104(1), 194-197.
- Department of Agriculture and Forestry. News (2018-07-13) New crop pest identified in Louisiana. http://www.ldaf.state.la.us/news/new-crop-pest-identified-in-louisiana/
- LSU. Guava root-knot nematode: a potentially serious new pest in Louisiana by Overstreet et al. (undated) https://www.lsuagcenter.com/articles/page1548428489554
Kheireddine A, Sáez C, Sifres A, Picó B, López C (2020) First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus infecting cucumber and zucchini in Algeria. Plant Disease. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2091-PDN
Luria N, Smith E, Sela N, Koren A, Lachman O, Dombrovsky A (2019) Insights into a watermelon virome contribute to monitoring distribution of whitefly-borne viruses. Phytobiomes Journal 3(1), 61-70. https://doi.org/10.1094/PBIOMES-07-18-0034-R
Maruthadurai R, Ramesh R (2020) Occurrence, damage pattern and biology of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on fodder crops and green amaranth in Goa, India. Phytoparasitica 18(1), 15-23.
Nugnes F, Laudonia S, Jesu G, Jansen MGM, Bernardo U, Porcelli F (2020) Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in some European countries: diffusion, hosts, molecular characterization, and natural enemies. Insects 11(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010042
Tian Y, Zhao Y, Zhou J, Sun T, Luo X, Kurowski C, Gong W, Hu B, Walcott RR (2020). Prevalence of Acidovorax citrulli in commercial cucurbit seedlots during 2010-2018 in China. Plant Disease 104(1), 255-259. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-19-0666-RE