EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 02 - 2020 Num. article: 2020/035

Revision of the taxonomy of Euwallacea fornicatus

Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae – EPPO A2 List) is now considered as a species complex. The taxonomic status of the E. fornicatus species complex (Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato) was under discussion until recently. Based on morphological and molecular data, the existence of four species seems now to be agreed between specialists: E. fornicatior, E. fornicatus, E. perbrevis, and E. kuroshio

  • E. fornicatus (polyphagous shot hole borer): considered to be native in China, Japan, Malaysia, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam, and introduced into Israel, South Africa, and the USA (California).
  • E. perbrevis : species of the ‘previously described tea shot hole borer’, considered to be native in American Samoa, Australia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Réunion, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor Leste, and Vietnam, and introduced into the USA (Florida and Hawaii) 
  • E. fornicatior: species of the ‘previously described tea shot hole borer’, not found outside its native range which is south-eastern Asia.
  • E. kuroshio (Kuroshio shot hole borer): native in Indonesia, Japan, and Taiwan, and introduced into Mexico and the USA (California).

Because the taxonomic identity of the species complex was recently reassessed, it is difficult to attribute previous host records to one of these species. For the time being, these 4 species are covered in EPPO Global Database under Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato.


Gomez DF, Hulcr J, Carrillo D (2019) Diagnosis and management of the invasive shot hole borers Euwallacea fornicatus, E. kuroshio, and E. perbrevis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Publication #FOR353. October 2019 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr422

Gomez DF, Skelton J, Steininger MS, Stouthamer R, Rugman-Jones P, Sittichaya W, Rabaglia RJ, Hulcr J (2018) Species delineation within the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex revealed by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Insect Systematics and Diversity 2(6). https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixy018

Gomez DF, Lin W, Gao L, Li Y (2019) New host plant records for the Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across its natural and introduced distribution. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 22(1), 338–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2019.01.013

Smith SM, Gomez DF, Beaver RA, Hulcr J, Cognato AI (2019) Reassessment of the species in the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) complex after the rediscovery of the ‘lost’ type specimen. Insects 10, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090261

Stouthamer R, Rugman-Jones P, Thu PQ, Eskalen A, Thibault T, Hulcr J, Wang LJ, Jordal BH, Chen CY, Cooperband M, Lin CS, Kamata N, Lu SS, Masuya H, Mendel Z, Rabaglia R, Sanguansub S, Shih HH, Sittichaya W, Zong SX (2017) Tracing the origin of a cryptic invader: phylogeography of the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) species complex. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 19(4), 366–375. https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12215