EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 06 - 2019 Num. article: 2019/129

Outbreak of Salvia reflexa in Northeastern China

Salvia reflexa (Lamiaceae) is an annual species native to southern USA and Mexico.  The species has been introduced into the south-east USA, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan and New Zealand.  In some areas of its invasive range, the species has been reported to degrade arable land and have negative impacts on crop yields.  Within the EPPO regionS. reflexa has been previously reported in Austria, Belgium, France (EPPO RS 2008/112), Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. It has also been recorded as naturalized in Serbia.  In China, the species was first detected growing adjacent to a grain depot in Shahai village, Jianping county, Liaoning province in 2007.  To assess any further populations, field surveys were conducted in 44 prefectures within Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces between 2007 and 2017.  Surveys were focused around known S. reflexa habitats (e.g. low forest cover, roadsides, riverbanks and agricultural habitats).  Surveys were conducted from cars and complemented with searches on foot every 1-2 km along the road.  Plants with geographic segregation were considered different populations. In total, seven populations of S. reflexa were recorded during the field surveys.  The populations ranged in size from a large population comprising tens of thousands of individuals close to a market in Jianping county to small populations of 10 plants found near livestock sites in Kazuo county.  Other populations were found along riparian systems.  The authors highlight this is the first time a member of the Lamiaceae family has been found in cold environments in China, and although its current distribution is limited, measures should be taken to prevent further spread.


Shao MN, Qu B, Drew BT, Xiang CL, Miao Q, Luo SH (2019) Outbreak of a new alien invasive plant Salvia reflexa in north-east China. Weed Research 59, 201-208.