EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 06 - 2019 Num. article: 2019/118

Update on the situation of Cydalima perspectalis in the EPPO region

Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) continues to spread within the EPPO region. Its presence has recently been recorded in the following countries (or regions).

Albania: the first specimens of C. perspectalis were observed by an entomologist during a conference technical visit in June 2017 in the natural Buxus tree communities of Kuturman Massif near Librazhd (Prefecture of Elbasan) (Raineri et al., 2017).

British Isles: in the United Kingdom, C. perspectalis arrived in England in 2007 (a year earlier than originally reported – EPPO RS 2010/106), as a single specimen was found in September 2007 in Wye (East Kent). For some years, spread was slow, but in 2013 the insect started to expand its geographical range and abundance. C. perspectalis is now present across England (except the far northwestern part). In Wales, it was first observed in the northern part in July 2015 in Pwllheli and Llandudno (Caernarfonshire). In 2016, it was also found in the southern part of Wales. In Scotland, C. perspectalis was observed for the first time in July 2018 in Dalgety Bay and Newburgh (both in Fifeshire). In Ireland, the first specimen of C. perspectalis was recorded in July 2017 in the county of Waterford. In 2018, it was also found near Dublin, in Williamstown. The same year, the pest was recorded in Northern Ireland, in Bangor, in the county of Down, in Belfast and 5 localities along the Eastern coast. In this review, it is also noted that the moth was first recorded in the Channel Islands, on Guernsey in 2014 (Plant et al., 2019).

Denmark: the establishment of the pest still needs to be confirmed but a picture of a specimen caught in a trap in Søborg in August 2013 has been published on the Internet (Hobern, 2013).

Lithuania: the first specimen of C. perspectalis was caught in a light trap in September 2018 in Žudiškės (Vilnius district). For the moment, this is the northernmost record in the EPPO region (Paulavičiūtė and Mikalauskas, 2018).

Luxembourg: the first specimen of C. perspectalis was found in September 2015, on a wall near a railway station in Wasserbillig (Hellers and Christian, 2016).

Moldova: C. perspectalis was first found in Moldova in 2015 (ANSA, 2018).

North MacedoniaC. perspectalis was recorded for the first time in 2014 on young Buxus plants in parks, gardens and other urban green areas in the city of Skopje. The pest was subsequently observed in urban environments in Kavadarci and Ohrid. In 2015, it was also found in natural Buxus communities on the Vodno mountain and in the area of Matka (both near Skopje). The highest insect populations were observed in urban environments and were causing damage (Skopje, Kavadarci and Ohrid). Severe defoliation was noticed in 2017 and 2018, in several natural Buxus communities on the Vodno mountain (Načeski et al., 2018).

Portugal: according to agricultural warning bulletins, C. perspectalis was first found in 2016 in Norte region, in the municipalities of Caminha, Vila Nova de Cerveira, Ponte de Lima, and Santo Tirso and since then has been spreading to other areas (SNAA, 2017).


Hellers M, Christian S (2016) Eine neue invasive Art in Luxemburg: der Buchsbaumzünsler Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 118, 131-134. https://www.snl.lu/publications/bulletin/SNL_2016_118_111_129.pdf


- ANSA (2018-05-02) Agenţia Naţională pentru Siguranţa Alimentelor. ANSA atenționează asupra apariției unui dăunător periculos. http://www.ansa.gov.md/ro/comunicate/ansa-aten%C8%9Bioneaz%C4%83-asupra-apari%C8%9Biei-unui-d%C4%83un%C4%83tor-periculos

- Donald Hobern (2013) Picture of Cydalima perspectalis on Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/dhobern/9418970083

- SNAA (2017-07-05) Serviço Nacional Avisos Agrícola. Estação de Avisos de Entre Douro e Minho. Traça do buxo. Circular no. 11/2017. http://snaa.dgav.pt/docs/circulares/material%20para%20circular%2011_2017_DIGITAL.pdf

Načeski S, Papazova-Anakieva I, Ivanov B, Lazarevska S, Šurbevski B (2018) Occurrence of the new invasive insect Cydalima perspectalis Walker on box tree in the Republic of Macedonia. Contributions, Section of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences, MASA 39(2), 135–141.

Paulavičiūtė B., Mikalauskas D (2018) First record of the box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Lithuania. Lietuvos Entomologų Draugija Darbai 2(30), 55-58. http://www.entomologai.lt/leidiniai/category/52-volume-2-30-2018?download=311:bles-vol2-30-p055-59-paulaviciute-mikalauskas-cydalima-perspectalis

Plant CW, Poole C, Salisbury A, Bird S (2019) The box-tree moth Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1959) in Britain: an overview of its spread and current status. Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 131, 122-147. 


Raineri V, Bonechi F, Caracciolo D, Cresta P, Mariotti M (2017) Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) and the threats for the Nature 2000 habitats 5110 in Liguria (NW-Italy). Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici dell’Università di Genova 79, 215-236.