New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) in the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Ecuador, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae - EPPO A1 List) was reported for the first time in March 2019. It was found in the provinces of Imbabura, Carchi, Pichincha, Cotopaxi and Tunguragua (IPPC, 2019). Present: only in some areas.
In Poland, Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was observed for the first time in 2012 in the Dolny Śląsk region, and subsequently in the Opolszczyzna and Małopolska regions in 2015, as well as in the Podkarpacie region in 2016 (Bury et al., 2016). Present: only in some areas.
Dacus ciliatus (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) is recorded as a pest of courgette (Cucurbita pepo) in Côte d’Ivoire (Koné et al., 2019). Present, no details.
In Nicaragua, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A2 List) was first reported in 2018 on Hibiscus spp. in Rivas and Granada (IPPC, 2018). Present: only in some areas.
In 2017, Thekopsora minima (EPPO A2 List) was detected in a lot of Vaccinium corymbosum in a nursery in Galicia, Spain. Control measures were taken (Anonymous, 2018). Present, few occurrences.
In Haiti, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in 2018. The pest was detected during a survey carried out from March to June 2018 in 4 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fields located in the South Department (Verheggen & Bertin Fontus, 2019). Present: only in some areas.
In Spain, Plenodomus tracheiphilus (mal secco – EPPO A2 list) was detected for the first time in 2015 in Málaga (Andalucía). Within the framework of a contingency plan, eradication measures have been applied (Anonymous, 2017). Present: only in some areas, under eradication.
- Detailed records
Epitrix papa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae – EPPO A2 List) was first detected in 2014 in two counties (Santa Cruz and Santana) on Madeira Island, Portugal. It had been previously misindentified as E. similaris. Surveys conducted in May and June 2018 detected it in 5 adjacent counties (Calheta, Machico, Ponta Do Sol, Porto Moniz, São Vicente). It is now present in 7 counties. It was detected in small production plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum) for home consumption. Official phytosanitary measures are being taken (NPPO of Portugal, 2018). Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned, under containment, in case eradication is impossible.
In Azores (Portugal), Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) was first detected during official surveys in 2018 in the municipality of Algarvia, on São Miguel island. Viable cysts were detected in a small plot grown for home consumption. The field was planted in 2016, 2017 and 2018 with seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from other EU Member States. Intensive surveys did not detect the pest in neighbouring fields. Eradication measures are applied according to Directive 2007/33/EC (NPPO of Portugal, 2018). Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned, under eradication.
In New Zealand, a single male specimen of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 List) was caught in February 2019 in a trap located at a residential property in Devonport, Auckland city (IPPC, 2019). Transient: actionable, under surveillance.
During surveys conducted in 2016/2017 in Lazio region, Italy, the presence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List) was detected in the Southern part of the region on courgette (Cucurbita pepo), together with populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae - EPPO A2 List). It was stressed that the presence of B. tabaci across Lazio could facilitate the northward spread of ToLCNDV to the rest of Lazio, as well as to nearby regions of Central Italy (Bertin et al., 2018).
In Guadeloupe, bacterial fruit blotch caused by Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO A1 List) was first reported in March 2015 from symptomatic melon (Cucumis melo). Sanitation measures were applied, and no symptoms have been reported in 2018. The outbreak is considered eradicated. The authors considered that this first report of A. citrulli shows that it could represent a threat in the Caribbean area, where it has never previously been reported (Cunty et al., 2019).
- Host plants
In May 2017, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants showing stunting, loss of floral buds, foliage distortion, and thickened nodes were observed in the county of Sapezal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Aphelenchoides besseyi (EPPO A2 List) was isolated from leaf and stem samples. The identity of the nematode was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods. The ability of A. besseyi to infect cotton was confirmed in glasshouse experiments and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled (Favoreto et al., 2018).
A rapid and sensitive LAMP method has been developed in China for the detection of Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO A1 List) in cucurbit seeds (Yan et al., 2019).
A rapid, sensitive and quantitative PCR method (real-time PCR) has been developed in Denmark for the specific detection of Neonectria neomacrospora (EPPO Alert List), both in planta and in collected airborne spore samples (Nielsen et al., 2019).
Apple rubbery wood is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized by unusual flexibility of twigs and the smaller branches of apple trees. Recent studies using NGS (Next-Generation-Sequencing) technologies have identified two new viruses tentatively called Apple rubbery wood viruses 1 and 2. These viruses are thought to represent a new genus (suggested name is Rubodvirus) within the family Phenuiviridae (Rott et al., 2018).
Anonymous (2017) Andalucía declara una plaga por el mal seco de los cítricos. Phytoma-España no. 291, p 2.
Anonymous (2018) Galicia: consecuencias de un año inusualmente seco. Boletines fitosanitarios 2017. Phytoma-España no. 296, 31-37.
Bertin S, Luigi M, Parella G, Giorgini M, Davino S, Tomassoli L (2018) Survey of the distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Lazio region (Central Italy): a threat for the northward expansion of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus: Geminiviridae) infection. Phytoparasitica 46(2), 171-182.
Bury J, Olbrycht T, Mazur K, Babula P, Czudec P (2017) First records of the invasive box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in south-eastern Poland. Fragmenta Faunistica 60(2), 101–106.
Cunty A, Audusseau C, Paillard S, Olivier V, François C, Rivoal C, Poliakoff F (2019) First report of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, on melon (Cucumis melo) in Guadeloupe (France). Plant Disease 103(5), p 1017. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1825-PDN
Favoreto L, Faleiro VO, Freitas MA, Brauwers LR, Galbieri R, Homiak JA, Lopes-Caitar VS, Marcelino-Guimarães FC, Meyer MC (2018) First report of Aphelenchoides besseyi infecting the aerial part of cotton plants in Brazil. Plant Disease 102(12), p 2662. https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/full/10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0334-PDN
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Ecuador (ECU-05/1 of 2019-03-25) Presencia de Bactericera cockerelli en Ecuador. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/ecuador/pestreports/2019/03/presencia-de-bactericera-cockerelli-en-ecuador/
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – New Zealand (NZL-09/3 of 2019-02-27) A Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni has been detected in a fruit fly surveillance trap at a residential property in Devonport, Auckland City. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/new-zealand/pestreports/2019/02/a-queensland-fruit-fly-bactrocera-tryoni-has-been-detected-in-a-fruit-fly-surveillance-trap-at-a-residential-property-in-devonport-auckland-city/
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Nicaragua (NIC-16/1 of 2018-11-16) Primer reporte oficial de Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908). https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/nicaragua/pestreports/2018/11/primer-reporte-oficial-de-maconellicoccus-hirsutus-green-1908/
Koné K, Tuo Y, Yapo ML, Soro F, Traoré D & Koua KH (2019) Main insect pests of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L), in the dry season and impact on production in Northern Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 7(1), 523–527.
Nielsen KN, Thomsen IM, Hansen OK (2019) Direct quantitative real‐time PCR assay for detection of the emerging pathogen Neonectria neomacrospora. Forest Pathology, e12509. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12509
NPPO of Portugal (2018-06, 2018-12).
Rott ME, Kesanakurti P, Berwarth C, Rast H, Boyes I, Phelan J, Jelkmann W (2018) Discovery of negative-sense RNA viruses in trees infected with Apple rubbery wood disease by next-generation sequencing. Plant Disease 102(7), 1254-1263. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0851-RE
Verheggen F, Bertin Fontus R (2019) First record of Tuta absoluta in Haiti. Entomologia Generalis 38(4), 349-353 (abst.).
Yan L, Zhao Y, Zhou J, Chen S, Bai S, Tian Y, Gong W, Hu B (2019) Rapid and sensitive detection of Acidovorax citrulli in cucurbit seeds by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. Journal of Phytopathology 167(1), 10-18.