Slovenian population of Xiphinema rivesi can transmit Tobacco ringspot virus and Tomato ringspot virus
Xiphinema rivesi (EPPO A2 List) is a member of the X. americanum group which was detected for the first time in Slovenia in 2002 (EPPO RS 2003/036). X. rivesi is known to be a vector of at least four North American nepoviruses: Cherry rasp leaf virus (EPPO A1 List), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, EPPO A2 List), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, EPPO A2 List), Peach rosette mosaic virus (EPPO A1 List). So far, none of the Xiphinema species found in Europe have been reported to transmit these nepoviruses. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine whether the Slovenian population of X. rivesi could transmit TRSV and ToRSV.
Three virus isolates, TRSV (from Lobelia), ToRSV (from grapevine) and Arabis mosaic virus (from Vinca, negative control as this virus is not transmitted by X. rivesi) were used. Nematodes were extracted from the soil of an infested peach orchard near the village of Dornbek, Slovenia. Transmission tests were carried out using cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Eva) as acquisition and transmission hosts. Results showed that X. rivesi could acquire TRSV and ToRSV from artificially inoculated cucumber plants and then transmit both viruses to healthy cucumber plants which developed systemic symptoms. This is the first report of transmission of TRSV and ToRSV by a Xiphinema population from Europe.
Širca S, Geric Stare B, Mavrič Pleško I, Višček Marn M, Urek G, Javornik B (2007) Xiphinema rivesi from Slovenia transmit Tobacco ringspot virus and Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber bait plants. Plant Disease 91(6), p 770.