Update on the situation of Xylella fastidiosa in Spain
- Mainland Spain
In the province of Alicante (Comunidad Valenciana) where Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A2 List) was first found in June 2017 in one plot of almond (Prunus dulcis) trees (EPPO RS 2017/133), new detections were made within the demarcated area. As of November 2018, 201 new positive cases were detected, and the demarcated area will be enlarged to approximately 100 000 ha (covering 31 municipalities). During 2018, 12 517 samples were taken in Comunidad Valenciana (7 688 within the demarcated area), 6 065 were negative (4 026 within the demarcated area), 231 were positive and 6 221 are still under test (3 431 within the demarcated area). As of November 2018, 440 infected plants have been detected in Alicante province: 425 Prunus dulcis from 378 plots, 3 Phagnalon saxatile, 1 Calicotome spinosa, 3 Helichrysum italicum, 5 Polygala myrtifolia, 1 Prunus armeniaca, 1 Rhamnus alaternus and 1 Rosmarinus officinalis. To date, 283 ha (690 plots) have been treated with insecticide and 431 plots have been destroyed (21 662 almond trees and specified plants present in the underbrush of a nearby forest). During 2018, 2 070 insects have been collected (1 935 tested) in infected plots or their surroundings. X. fastidiosa has been confirmed in 10 Neophilaenus campestris (out of 1 001 tested) and 36 Philaenus spumarius (out of 829 tested). Studies on subspecies have identified X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex in the following plants: Helychrysum italicum, Phagnalon saxatile, Polygala myrtifolia, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus dulcis and Rosmarinus officinalis.
In April 2018, Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex was detected in 1 olive tree (Olea europaea cv. Picual) in Villarejo de Salvanés (Communidad de Madrid). An infected area (3.14 ha) and a buffer zone (5 km radius) have been delimited. 345 samples were collected from specified hosts in the infected area and all were negative. Treatments were also applied against insect vectors in April 2018 in the infected area and around it (within 500 m radius). The infected tree and other potential hosts were destroyed, and another treatment was applied against insect vectors. As of December 2018, 1 666 plant samples, as well as 55 insect samples, have been collected from the demarcated area and all test results were negative.
In April 2018, X. fastidiosa was detected in 3 Polygala myrtifolia plants in a nursery (greenhouse with physical protection against vector insects) located in the municipality of El Ejido (Andalucía). Infected plants came from a lot which had been imported from Portugal. Plant material of the affected nursery was destroyed and intensive surveys have been carried out around the infected site within 1 km radius. As of November 2018, all tested samples (1 484 samples) gave negative results.
The pest status of Xylella fastidiosa in Spain is officially declared as: Transient, actionable, under eradication.
- Islas Baleares
In Islas Baleares, specific surveys are being conducted on X. fastidiosa. As of October 2018, 740 infected plants have been detected: 427 in Mallorca, 194 in Ibiza and 119 in Menorca. In Baleares, the bacterium has been detected in 20 host plant species: Acacia saligna, Calicotome spinosa, Cistus albidus, Cistus monspeliensis, Ficus carica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Genista lucida, Juglans regia, Lavandula dentata, Nerium oleander, Olea europaea var. europaea, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Polygala myrtifolia, Prunus avium, Prunus domestica, Prunus dulcis, Rhamnus alaternus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Teucrium capitatum and Vitis vinifera. Since December 2017, a containment strategy has been adopted in Islas Baleares.
NPPO of Spain (2018-10, 2018-11, 2018-12).