New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
During studies on viruses infecting cultivated and wild beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. leptostachyus) in the central-western region of Mexico, symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected in the states of Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Nayarit between 2013 and 2015. Molecular tests confirmed the presence of Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus, CPMMV - EU Annexes) in several samples of cultivated and wild beans collected from the three studied Mexican states. This is the first time that CPMMV is reported from Mexico (Chiquito-Almanza et al., 2018). Present, only in some areas (Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Nayarit).
In Belgium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 4 (formerly EPPO Alert List) was reported for the first time in 2018. The first wilting symptoms had been observed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) crops in autumn 2015 in commercial glasshouses in the province of Antwerp. The disease then spread rapidly, and it is estimated that 15% of the glasshouse lettuce production area in Flanders are infected (Claerbout et al., 2018). Present, only in some areas.
In the United Kingdom, the first outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 4 (formerly EPPO Alert List) on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was reported in October 2017 (location was not given). In May and June 2018, the disease was found in Lancashire (England) (ProMed, 2017 and 2018). Present, only in some areas.
In the Republic of Korea, Little cherry virus 1 and Little cherry virus 2 (Velarivirus, LChV-1 and LChV-2 - both EU Annexes) were detected in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) during studies conducted in July 2016 in Gyeongju-si and Gyeongsangbuk-do. LChV-2 had been detected earlier in the Republic of Korea but only in flowering cherry (P. yedoensis) (Cho et al., 2018). Present, only in some areas.
In Serbia, Tetranychus evansi (EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in 2013. The first specimens were found in August 2013 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in 2 greenhouses near Belgrade (Šabac-Debrc). It is noted that climatic conditions prevailing in Serbia will probably not allow T. evansi to survive and establish outdoors (Marić et al., 2018). Present, few occurrences.
- Detailed records
In July 2016, Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV – EPPO A2 List) was found in Beijing on glasshouse chrysanthemums. Affected plants showed a serious stem necrotic disease, as well as irregular chlorotic spots on the upper leaves with shortened internodes. In some cases, discontinuous black streaks on stems near the base of the upper petioles, eventually followed by dieback, were observed. According to the authors, this is the first time that TSWV is detected on chrysanthemums in China (Chen et al., 2018).
During field studies conducted in 2014 near Nevşehir (Central Anatolia region) in Turkey, the pathotype 2 of Synchytrium endobioticum (EPPO A2 List) was detected in soil samples collected from potato fields. According to the authors, this is the first time that pathotype 2 is detected in Turkey (Çakir and Demirci, 2017).
In Iran, surveys on phytoplasmas were conducted from 2013 to 2015 in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the provinces of Qazvin, Lorestan and Markazi. Symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevine samples were collected and tested (PCR tests and RFLP analyses). As a result, several phytoplasma species were detected: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’, ‘Ca. P. aurantifolia’ (EU Annexes), ‘Ca. P. solani’ (EPPO A2 List) and ‘Ca. P. phoenicium’ (EPPO A1 List). It is noted that this is the first time that ‘Ca. P. fraxini’ is detected in Iran (Zamharir et al., 2017).
In China, Viteus vitifoliae (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae - EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2005 in Shanghai. It was then found in vineyards in Baqiao (Shaanxi province) and Huaihua (Hunan province) (Zhao et al., 2017).
The NPPO of Latvia recently informed the EPPO Secretariat that the official survey programme which has been carried out since 2008 confirmed the absence of Fusarium circinatum from the country (NPPO of Latvia, 2018).
The pest status of Fusarium circinatum in Latvia is officially declared as: Absent, confirmed by survey.
- Host plants
During August and September 2016, typical symptoms of phytoplasma yellows were observed on parsnip plants (Pastinaca sativa) in an experimental plot (105 m²) in South Bačka, Vojvodina, in Serbia. Approximately 5 % of the plants showed petiole and leaf redness, as well as chlorosis. Some plants displayed complete foliage necrosis and were therefore no longer suitable for human consumption at the time of harvest in October. Laboratory analysis (PCR with specific primers, sequencing) confirmed the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List) in symptomatic leaf samples (Medić Pap et al., 2018).
Laboratory studies were conducted in the USA to evaluate the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea, as a host of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – EPPO A1 List). In this bioassay, several stems cut from an olive tree were used and inoculated with eggs of the insect. As live larvae and adults could be obtained, it is considered that olive is capable of supporting the development of A. planipennis. However, these preliminary results obtained in the laboratory should be verified in field conditions (Cipollini et al., 2017).
- New pests and taxonomy
During studies carried out on blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum) of the USDA germplasm collection (Oregon, US) which were showing virus-like symptoms, a new Idaeovirus has been discovered in a blackcurrant accession and tentatively called Blackcurrant idaeovirus (BCIV) (Thekke-Veetil et al., 2017).
Çakir E, Demirci F (2017) A new pathotype of Synchytrium endobioticum in Turkey: pathotype 2. Bitki Koruma Bülteni 57(4), 415-422.
Chen DL, Luo C, Liu H, Li XM, Cheng X, Li MY, Wang LL, Huang CL (2018) First report of Chrysanthemum stem blight and dieback caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in China. Plant Disease 102(5), p 1047.
Chiquito-Almanza E, Caballero-Pérez J, Guevara-Olvera L, Acosta-García G, Pérez-Pérez MCI, Acosta-Gallegos JA, Anaya-López JL (2018) First report of Cowpea mild mottle virus infecting cultivated and wild Phaseolus in the Central-Western region of Mexico. Plant Disease 102(5), p 1047.
Cho SY, Kim H, Yi SI (2018) First report of Little cherry virus 1 and 2 in sweet cherry in Korea. Plant Disease 102(5), p 1045.
Cipollini D, Rigsby CM, Peterson DL (2017) Feeding and development of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on cultivated olive, Olea europaea. Journal of Economic Entomology 110(4), 1935-1937.
Claerbout J, Venneman S, Vandevelde I, Decombel A, Bleyaert P, Volckaert A, Neukermans J, Höfte M (2018) First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 4 on lettuce in Belgium. Plant Disease 102(5), p 1037.
- ProMed posting (no. 20171030.5412370) of 2017-10-30. Fusarium wilt, lettuce - UK: 1st rep. http://www.promedmail.org/post/5412370
- ProMed posting (no. 20180618.5861084) of 2018-06-18. Fusarium wilt, lettuce - UK: England. http://www.promedmail.org/post/5861084
Marić I, Marčić D, Petanović R, Auger P (2018) Biodiversity of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Serbia: a review, new records and key to all known species. Acarologia 58(1), 3-14.
Medić Pap S, Gvozdanović Varga J, Červenski J, Stepanović J, Rekanović E, Stepanović M, Duduk B (2018) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ infecting parsnip in Serbia. Plant Disease 102(5), p 1026.
NPPO of Latvia (2018-03).
Thekke-Veetil T, Ho T, Postman JD, Tzanetakis IE (2017) Characterization and detection of a novel idaeovirus infecting blackcurrant. European Journal of Plant Pathology 149(3), 751-757.
Zamharir MG, Paltrinieri S, Hajivand S, Taheri M, Bertaccini A (2017) Molecular identification of diverse ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species associated with grapevine decline in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 165(7-8), 407-413.
Zhao JJ, Zhang Y, Fan DS, Feng JN (2017) Identification and expression profiling of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins of Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae). Journal of Economic Entomology 110(4), 1813-1820.