New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List and has indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Argentina, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2014 on raspberries (Rubus idaeus) in Choele Choel (province of Río Negro). Subsequently, the pest was found in orchards (oranges (Citrus sinensis) and mulberries (Morus sp.)) in the region of Concordia (province of Entre Ríos), in blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) in Lobos (province of Buenos Aires), and in several sites near Anillaco (province of La Rioja) (Lue et al., 2017). Present, only in some areas (provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, La Rioja, Río Negro).
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) has recently been detected in Pakistan. A total of 249 grapevine (Vitis vinifera) samples were collected from different grape-growing regions and tested for different viruses. GPGV was detected in 5 self-rooted asymptomatic vines growing in the same vineyard in Sillanwali (Punjab region). Further studies will be conducted to determine the prevalence of GPGV in Pakistan (Rasool et al., 2017). Present, few occurrences (5 positive samples).
A single specimen of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) was first observed in 2016-11-12 in Odem, an Israeli settlement in the Northern part of the Golan Heights (Van der Heyden, 2018). Present, a single specimen was found in 2016 in Odem.
In Morocco, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) was first found near Tangier in June 2015. Three nymphs (2 instar III and 1 instar V) were observed in pine trees (Pinus pinaster) located approximately 1 km from the sea coast (Gapon, 2015). Present, 3 specimens were first found in 2015 near Tangiers.
In Lebanon, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) was first identified in 2015. Two adult specimens had been collected in October and November 2014, one from a private property in Arsoun and one from a small population of Pinus brutia trees in Dlebta (Nemer, 2015). Present, 2 adults were first found in 2014 in Arsoun and Dlebta.
In Nigeria, Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in 2017. In January and February 2017, symptoms of yellowing and leaf curling had been observed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fields in 7 states (Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebby, Jigawa, Sokoto and Zamfara) in Northern Nigeria. In these fields, tomato plants were also heavily infested by Bemisia tabaci. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of ToCV in tomato leaf samples collected from the 7 states mentioned above (Mohammed et al., 2018). Present, only in some areas (found in 7 states in Northern Nigeria).
- Detailed records
In the USA, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae - EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from South Carolina. The pest has been detected in Greenville, Oconee, and Spartanburg counties. In order to prevent any further spread of the pest, movements of wood and wood products from South Carolina are regulated, including firewood of all hardwood species, nursery stock, green lumber, waste, compost, and chips of ash species (NAPPO, 2017).
The pest status of Agrilus planipennis in the USA is officially declared as: Present in some parts of the United States and subject to official control to prevent further spread.
Since 2013, specific surveys on soybean (Glycine max) diseases have been conducted in the state of New York (US). A few brown and lemon-shaped cysts, similar to those of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines – EPPO A2 List), were isolated from a soil sample which had been collected from a soybean field in Cayuga county in autumn 2016 (after harvest). Laboratory analysis (morphological, molecular and inoculation tests) confirmed the presence of H. glycines. This is the first time that this nematode is reported from the state of New York (Wang et al., 2017)
In China, Meloidogyne graminicola (EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Zhejiang province in May 2016 in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) fields near Jinhua. Zhejiang province is one of the major rice growing area in Eastern China (Tian et al., 2017). In the province of Hunan, M. graminicola was first found in June 2016 in a rice field in Hetang district. In April and June 2017, further investigations were carried out in the main rice-producing regions of Hunan. Severe symptoms caused by M. graminicola were observed in Changsha (Ningxiang city), Zhuzhou (Liling city, Zhuzhou county), Xiangtan (Xiangtan county), Hengyang (Leiyang city), Yueyang (Pingjiang county), Changde (Hanshou county), and Yiyang (Ziyang district, Heshan district). The incidence of symptoms exceeded 85% in severely infested paddy fields (Song et al., 2017).
In China, Peronospora belbahrii was found in July 2016 on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the Shunyi and Daxing districts of Beijing. Basil downy mildew had been found on the island of Hainan in 2014, thus the recent record in Beijing constitutes the first report in mainland China (Hu et al., 2018).
- Host plants
Inoculation experiments conducted in the USA have shown that almond (Prunus dulcis) is susceptible to Fusarium euwallaceae (EPPO A2 List). Inoculated plants showed vascular lesions extending above and below inoculation points and the fungus could be re-isolated from inoculated plants (Moreno et al., 2018).
Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) plants growing together with tomatoes under glasshouses in Liaocheng prefecture, Shandong province, China. During summers 2014 and 2016, leaves of affected cowpea plants had exhibited interveinal chlorotic yellowing, dark green veins, and curling. Tomato plants were also infected by TocV and heavy whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations were observed in the sampling sites. The disease incidence was around 87% for tomato plants and 5% for cowpea plants (Wang et al., 2018).
Gapon DA (2015) First record of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Morocco. Heteropterus Revista de Entomolog ía 15(2), 161-163.
Hu B, Li Z, Hu M, Sun H, Zheng J, Diao Y (2018) Outbreak of downy mildew caused by Peronospora belbahrii on Ocimum basilicum var. polosum in China. New Disease Reports 37(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.037.001
Lue CH, Mottern JL, Walsh GC, Burrington ML (2017) New record for the invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Anillaco, western Argentina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 119(1), 146-150.
Mohammed IU, Yakub AM, Yusuf I, Muhammad A, Navas-Castillo J, Fiallo-Olivé E (2018) First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting tomato in Nigeria. Plant Disease 102(1), p 257.
Moreno K, Carrillo JD, Trouillas FP, Eskalen A (2018) Almond (Prunus dulcis) is susceptible to Fusarium euwallaceae, a fungal pathogen vectored by the polyphagous shot hole borer in California. Plant Disease 102(1), p 251.
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System - USA (2017-10-25) Agrilus planipennis (Emerald Ash Borer) - APHIS adds South Carolina to the regulated area in the United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=733
Nemer N (2015) Report on insect pests associated with conelet losses and their management in Pinus pinea forests in Lebanon. FAO, Rome 45 pp.
Rasool S, Naz S, Rowhani A, Golino DA, Westrick NM, Farrar KD, Al Rwahnih M (2017) First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus infecting grapevine in Pakistan. Plant Disease 101(11), p 1958.
Song ZQ, Zhang DY, Liu Y, Cheng FX (2017) First report of Meloidogyne graminicola on rice (Oryza sativa) in Hunan Province, China. Plant Disease 101(12), p 5153.
Tian ZL, Barsalote EM, Li XL, Cai RH, Zheng JW (2017) First report of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, on rice in Zhejiang, Eastern China. Plant Disease 101(12), p 2152.
Van der Heyden T (2018) First record of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) in the Golan Heights. Revista gaditana de Entomología 9(1), 1-3.
Wang X, Bergstrom GC, Chen S, Thurston DM, Cumming JA, Handoo A, Hult MN, Skantar AM (2017) First report of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in New York. Plant Disease 101(11), p 1957.
Wang XY, Feng J, Zang LY, Yan YL, Yang YY, Zhu XP (2018) Natural occurrence of Tomato chlorosis virus in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in China. Plant Disease 102(1), p 254.