New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ (EU Annexes – associated with European stone fruit yellows) occurs in Belarus. The pathogen was found during a study carried out in autumn 2014 in the experimental field of the Institute for Fruit Growing in Samochvalovichi. ‘Ca. P. prunorum’ was detected in symptomatic apricot (Prunus armeniaca) trees, as well as in asymptomatic Prunus spinosa (Valasevich and Schneider, 2016). Present, no details.
Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophiliidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2017 in Chile. The first specimens were caught in traps placed in blackberry bushes (Rubus spp.) in the municipality of Pucón y Villarrica (La Araucanía region), near the international road which leads to the border point of Maluil Malal. Official control measures have been taken to contain the pest (SAG, 2017). Since these initial captures, other specimens were caught in the regions of Los Lagos and Los Ríos. No damage has been reported on crops (Internet, 2017). Present, only in some areas (captures only, in La Araucanía, Los Lagos and Los Ríos regions), under official control.
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (formerly EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from France. During summer 2016, the fungus was detected in wilting lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Tourbillon) plants growing under plastic tunnels in Nice, Southern France. Affected plants were stunted and displayed yellow leaves with an orange discoloration of the vascular tissues. The disease incidence reached 15 to 40% with a yield loss of up to 50%. It is noted that the disease is restricted to a few production sites for the moment (Gilardi et al., 2017). Present, only in some areas (few production sites in Southern France).
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) has recently been found in Spain. In 2016, specific surveys were carried out in different grapevine production areas in Spain. The virus was detected in 3 samples (V. vinifera cvs. Garnacha and Bobal) showing leaf deformation and collected from the ‘Denominación de Origen’ Utiel-Requena (Comunidad Valenciana), and in 2 asymptomatic samples (V. vinifera cv. Tempranillo) from the ‘Denominación de Origen’ La Manchuela (Castilla La Mancha). Further studies will be performed to better understand the distribution and incidence of GPGV in Spanish vineyards (Ruiz-Garcia and Olmos, 2017). Present: only in some areas (Castilla La Mancha, Comunidad Valenciana).
Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae - Western conifer seed bug) was first found in Chile in April 2017. The first specimens were identified in Valparaíso in an urban environment. However, it is noted that this insect had incidentally been found in March 2017 in Coquimbo region (contiguous to Valparaíso region) on a ship coming from the Philippines, without evidence that these specimens had escaped from the ship. However, this observation suggests that ship transport might have been a pathway of introduction. Following these initial findings, L. occidentalis rapidly spread to the following other regions of Chile: Atacama, Metropolitana, Maule, and Bíobío. This is also the first time that L. occidentalis is reported from South America (Faúndez and Rocca, 2017; Faúndez et al., 2017). Present: only in some areas (Atacama, Bíobío, Coquimbo, Maule, Metropolitana, Valparaíso).
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (EPPO A1 List) occurs in Timor-Leste. During surveys carried out from 2006 to 2016, leaves of citrus plants showing characteristic symptoms of citrus canker were collected. Laboratory studies (biochemical, molecular tests, and pathogenity tests) have recently confirmed the identity of the bacterium (Ray et al., 2017). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) has recently been found in Southern China. The virus was detected in 14 symptomatic samples (showing leaf chlorotic mottling and deformation) which had been collected in 2014 from grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Shine Muscat) growing in the provinces of Hainan, Guangxi and Guangdong (Lou et al., 2016).
Meloidogyne graminicola was found for the first time in Hubei province, China, in May 2016. The nematode was found in rice (Oryza sativa) root samples which had been collected from 3 adjacent fields in the village of Hexin (Gongan county). Several hook-shaped galls were observed on the roots (Wang et al., 2017).
In China, Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV - EPPO A2 List) has been detected in a pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) field in Linyi, Shandong province. In August 2015, pumpkin plants showed symptoms of leaf mottling, crinkling and mosaic, as well as a high incidence of thrips (Thrips palmi) (Sun et al., 2016).
In Italy, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (EPPO A2 List) was found in the province of Trento during extensive field surveys carried out during 2012-2015 on kiwifruit (mainly Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward, but also A. chinensis cv. Soreli) (Cainelli et al., 2016)
In Italy, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List) occurs in Sardegna. In August 2016, unusual symptoms were observed in a field of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) located in Decimoputzu. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of ToLCNDV (Luigi et al., 2016).
In Italy, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (Tospovirus, CSNV – EPPO A1 List) was detected on Chrysanthemum morifolium in February 2014 in a nursery located in the province of Savona, Liguria region (EPPO RS 2014/129). Eradication measures were taken, and all infected plants were destroyed. Results of surveys (including sampling and laboratory tests) which have been carried out during the last 3 years in the largest floricultural companies of Liguria have confirmed the absence of CSNV. The NPPO of Italy now considers that CSNV has been eradicated (NPPO of Italy, 2017-10).
- Host plants
In China, Watermelon silver mottle virus (Tospovirus, WSMoV – EPPO A1 List) was detected in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants during a survey conducted in November 2015 in Mangshi county, Yunnan province. Affected tomato plants were showing leaf chlorosis and were also infested by thrips. This is the first time that WSMoV is detected in tomato (Yin et al., 2016).
- New pests and taxonomy
A new Nepovirus causing a leaf mottling disease in Petunia hybrids has recently been characterized. Infected plants originated from South America and displayed foliar interveinal chlorosis and mottling. This new virus has tentatively been called Petunia chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV) (Bratsch et al., 2017).
A new phytoplasma species, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma wodyetiae’ has been described. It is associated with a yellow decline disease of Wodyetia bifurcata (foxtail palm) which has been observed in Bangi (State of Selangor), Malaysia. Affected palm trees grown for landscaping displayed severe foliar chlorosis, stunting, general decline and mortality reminiscent of coconut yellow decline disease. ‘Ca. P. wodyetiae’ belongs to a new phytoplasma ribosomal group, 16SrXXXVI, subgroup A (Naderali et al., 2017).
In the EPPO RS 2017/131 summaring the situation of Agrilus planipennis in Russia, the list of administrative divisions of European Russia where the pest has been found should be corrected as follows:
Southern European Russia:
Belgorod, Kursk, Rostov, Saratov, Volgograd, Voronezh.
Central European Russia:
Bryansk, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Kostroma, Lipetsk, Moscow, Mordovia, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Ryazan, Smolensk, Tambov, Tula, Tver, Vladimir, Vologda, Yaroslavl.
A corrected version of this article can be obtained from the EPPO website or the EPPO Global Database.
Bratsch S, Lockhart B, Mollov D (2017) Characterization of a new nepovirus causing a leaf mottling disease in Petunia hybrid. Plant Disease 101(6), 1017-1021.
Cainelli C, Ferrante P, Scortichini M (2016) Records of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on Actinidia spp. in Trentino (north-east Italy). Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3), p 689.
Faúndez EI, Rocca JR (2017) [The Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Chile; fast expansion, potential impact and challenges]. Revista Chilena de Entomología 42, 25-27 (in Spanish).
Faúndez EI, Rocca JR, Villablanca J (2017) Detection of the invasive Western conifer seed bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae) in Chile. Arquivos Entomolóxicos 17, 317-320.
Gilardi G, Pons C, Gard B, Franco-Ortega S, Gullino ML (2017) Presence of fusarium wilt, incited by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae, on lettuce in France. Plant Disease 101(6), 1053-1054.
- Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero. Ministerio de Agricultura. Gobierno de Chile (2017-06-13) Resolución exenta n°:3672/2017. Establece medidas fitosanitarias de emergencia provisionales para la plaga drosófila de alas manchadas – Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Diptera: Drosophilidae. http://www.sag.cl/sites/default/files/resol._drosophila_suzukii_zero_5_ec_anasac_chile_s.a._resol._5863-2017.pdf
- PortalFruticola.com (2017-07-07) Se detecta en Chile por primera vez ejemplares de Drosophila suzukii. http://www.portalfruticola.com/noticias/2017/07/07/se-detecta-chile-primera-vez-ejemplares-drosophila-suzukii/
- SAG website (2017-08). Situación de la plaga en Chile: Drosófila de alas manchadas Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). http://www.sag.cl/sites/default/files/ppt_tipo_ds-sag_agosto2017.pdf
Lou BH, Song YQ, Chen AJ, Bai XJ, Wang B, Wang MZ, Liu P, He JJ (2016) First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in commercial grapevines in Southern China. Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3), p 684.
Luigi M, Manglli A, Valdes M, Sitzia M, Davino S, Tomassoli L (2016) Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting zucchini in Sardinia (Italy). Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3), p 695.
Naderali N, Nejat N, Vadamalai G, Davis R, Wei W, Harrison N, Kong L, Kadir J, Tan Y, Zhao Y (2017) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma wodyetiae’, a new taxon associated with yellow decline disease of foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) in Malaysia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 67(10),3765-3772 (via PestLens).
Ray JD, Taylor RK, Griffin RL, James RS, Dale C, Ximines A, Jones LM (2017) Confirmation of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causing citrus canker in Timor-Leste. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 12(44). DOI 10.1007/s13314-017-0259-0.
Ruiz-García AB, Olmos A (2017) First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in grapevine in Spain. Plant Disease 101(6), 1070-1071.
Sun XH, Gao LL, Wang SL, Wang YY, Yang XY, Wang XY, Zhu XP (2016) First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting pumpkin in China. Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3), p 687.
Valasevich N, Schneider B (2016) Detection, identification and molecular diversity of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ in Belarus. Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3), 625-629.
Wang GF, Xiao LY, Luo HG, Peng DL, Xiao YN (2017) First report of Meloidogyne graminicola on rice in Hubei province, China. Plant Disease 101(6), p 1056.
Yin YY, Li TT, Lu X, Gu ZL, Zhao LL, Guo M, Zhao JF, Ding M (2016) First report of Watermelon silver mottle virus infecting tomato in Yunnan, China. Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3), p 681.