New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In the Russian Far East, a male specimen of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO A1 List) was discovered in August 2014 on the territory of Primorsky Krai, close to the Chinese border (approximately 0.5-1 km). Present, a single specimen found in Primorsky Krai (close to China) (Shamaev, 2016).
In Iraq, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in spring 2016 in Wasit province. Later surveys using pheromone traps detected the pest in other provinces (Almuthana, Baghdad, Karbela, Najaf, Salahaldeen, Wasit) (Abdulrazak et al., 2016). Present, only in some areas (Almuthana, Baghdad, Karbela, Najaf, Salahaldeen, Wasit provinces).
In Croatia, during surveys on grapevine viruses conducted on 9 autochthonous cultivars grown along the coast, Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus) and Grapevine red globe virus (Maculavirus) were detected for the first time (Vončina et al., 2017). Present, no details.
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) has recently been found in Australia. During 2015-2017, a total of 575 samples of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) were collected from commercial vineyards and tested. GPGV was detected in 6 samples from New South Wales and 3 from South Australia. All varieties (8 in total) had been imported from Europe during the last 4 to 19 years (Wu and Habili, 2017). Present: only in some areas (New South Wales, South Australia).
In China, during surveys on nematodes conducted in October 2015 and May 2016, Heterodera zeae (formerly EPPO Alert List) was found in soil samples collected from a maize (Zea mays) field near Laibin (Guangxi). In this field (0.2 ha), maize plants showed leaf yellowing and stunting. As H. zeae is a potential risk to maize crops, the authors noted that control measures were needed to prevent its further spread (Wu et al., 2017). Present, first specimens detected in 1 maize field (Guangxi).
In Sudan, during surveys of citrus trees conducted in commercial orchards, nurseries and gardens from 2013 to 2014, symptoms of citrus canker were observed on lime trees (Citrus aurantifolia) in the state of Al Qadarif (Gadaref). High disease incidence was observed near the city of Al Qadarif. Studies have revealed the presence of a new strain of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (EPPO A1 List). It is concluded that further research is needed to characterize strains of X. citri subsp. citri which are present in Eastern Sudan (Abubaker et al., 2016). Present, first found in 2013 in Eastern Sudan.
Hypocryphalus scabricollis and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been reported the first time in Southeastern Sicily, Italy. During the summers of 2014 and 2015, large infestations of both species were recorded in 8 locations on common fig (Ficus carica). These infestations caused rapid death and desiccation of many fig trees of various ages, growing individually, in small groups, or in large plantations for fruit production. In some areas, wild varieties of figs were also infested. All infested trees were cut down and burnt (Faccoli et al., 2016).
The presence of the Asian hornet, Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is confirmed in Belgium. In November 2016, a nest was found in Guignies (south of Tournai). This first nest was destroyed but Asian hornet specimens were found in nearby localities in 2017 (Internet, 2017).
- Host plants
In Algeria, during studies carried out in the oasis of Ziban (Biskra region) from August 2009 to July 2011, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time on beet (Beta vulgaris) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea), as well as on the weed species Chenopodium bonus-henricus and C. rubrum (Drouai et al., 2016).
Studies conducted in Italy during 2013-2014 suggested that Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a potential vector of Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus) (Malagnini et al., 2016).
- New pests
In Northeastern Brazil (Saõ Francisco Valley), larvae of Lasiothyris luminosa (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were observed in 2015 causing extensive feeding damage to flowers and fruits of grapevine (Vitis spp.). Very little is known about the biology of L. luminosa. The first specimens (males) were collected in Santa Catarina (BR) and described in 1969 without any reports of feeding on grapes or any other plant. This is the first time that L. luminosa is reported to cause damage to a cultivated plant (and that females are observed). As its feeding behaviour is similar to that of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) it is suggested to call it the American grapevine moth (Costa-Lima et al., 2016).
Pictures of the pest and its damage to grapes can be viewed on the Internet.
Abdulrazak AS, Hadwan HA, Hassan SA, Aydan NI, Mohammed AK, Haider KM, Hussein SA (2016) New record of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Tephritidae: Diptera) in Iraq. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter no. 69, 4.
Abubaker MYA, Abu Dibar OAB, Elhassan SM, Yousif NME (2016) First report of citrus bacterial canker disease in lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) in Gadaref State-Eastern Sudan. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 7(5), 254-265.
Costa-Lima TC, Moreira GRP, Gonçalves GL, Specht A (2016) Lasiothyris luminosa (Razowski & Becker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): A new grapevine pest in northeastern Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 45(3), 336-339.
Drouai H, Mimeche F, Zedam A, Mimeche H, Belhamra M, Biche M (2016) New floristic records of Tuta absoluta Meyrick 1917, in Zibans’s Oasis (Biskra Algeria). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 4(6), 130-132.
Faccoli M, Campo G, Perrota G, Rassati D (2016) Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy. Zootaxa 4138(1), 189-194.
La biodiversité en Wallonie. Frelon asiatique Vespa velutina nigrithorax. Etat de la situation sur le territoire wallon au 28 juin 2017. http://biodiversite.wallonie.be/servlet/Repository/communique-frelon-asiatique-28-juin-2017.pdf?ID=37244&saveFile=true
Malagnini V, de Lillo E, Saldarelli P, Beber R, Duso C, Raiola A, Zanotelli L, Valenzano D, Giampetruzzi A, Morelli M, Ratti C, Causin R, Gualandri V (2016) Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine. Archives of Virology 161, 2595-2599.
Shamaev AV (2016) Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky, 1854) as the object of forest quarantine. Plant Health Research and Practice 1(15), 54-58.
Vončina D, Al Rwahnih M, Rowhani A, Gouran M, Almeida RPP (2017) Viral diversity in autochthonous Croatian grapevine cultivars. Plant Disease 101(7), 1230-1235.
Wu HY, Qiu ZQ, Mo AS, Li JQ, Peng DL (2017) First report of Heterodera zeae on maize in China. Plant Disease 101(7), p 1330.
Wu Q, Habili N (2017) The recent importation of Grapevine Pinot gris virus into Australia. Virus Genes. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-017-1475-6 (abst.).