New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in Crimea in 2015, and in Transcarpathia (near Velyka Dobron, West Ukraine) in 2016 (Nagy et al., 2017). Present, only in some areas.
Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 List) has been found in Spain. The presence of the pest has been confirmed in 45 plots in the comarca of Vega Baja (Comunidad Valenciana). Eradication measures have been taken (Anonymous, 2017).
Present: only in some areas (Comunidad Valenciana), under eradication.
Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from France. This whitefly was identified in 2017 in one lot of Ficus plants cultivated in a glasshouse near Paris. In this short note, it is also recalled that S. simplex was collected at the end of 2012 from Guadeloupe. As S. simplex does not attack F. carica (fig tree), its establishment in mainland France seems unlikely. Finally, in the sample collected from Ficus plants in mainland France, another whitefly Parabemisia myricae (formerly EPPO A2 List) was found in smaller numbers (Germain et al., 2017). Present, only in some areas.
In 2017, the presence of Sternochetus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A1 List) was reported for the first time from Brazil. Insect specimens were found in mangoes collected from a tree planted in a residential area in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Silva and Ricalde, 2017). Present, first specimens were found in 1 tree in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from Turkey. It was collected on black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) in the Eastern Mediterranean region (Kazak et al., 2017). Present: only in some areas (Eastern Mediterranean region).
During studies conducted in June/July 2012, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ associated with elm yellows (EPPO A1 List, initially listed as ‘Elm phloem necrosis’, a disease observed in North America) was found to be widespread across elm populations in Croatia, infecting Ulmus laevis and U. minor. In these studies, more than half of the infected U. laevis trees did not express any symptoms at the time of sampling (Katanić et al., 2016). Present: widespread.
- Detailed records
In the USA, Ditylenchus dipsaci (EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time in New Mexico. The nematode was found in samples of garlic (Allium sativum) presenting symptoms. Surveys will be conducted in New Mexico to determine the extent of the infestation (French et al., 2017).
In France, Phytophthora ramorum has been observed for the first time on Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch). In May 2017, the pathogen was detected in Finistère on a L. kaempferi stand of approximately 50 years old. Infected trees will be destroyed (Internet, 2017).
In the USA, Rose rosette virus (Emaravirus, RRV – EPPO Alert List) associated with rose rosette disease is reported for the first time in Minnesota. RRV was detected (RT-PCR) in Rosa hybrids (Bratsch et al., 2017).
Recent genome-wide analysis of a group of 27 isolates of Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) have provided evidence that the emergent Xylella fastidiosa genotype found in Italy is most closely related to isolates from Central America. These results support the hypothesis of a South American origin of the X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain CodiRO which is currently causing disease in olive trees in Southern Italy (Giampetruzzi et al., 2017).
Studies have been carried out to investigate the possible origins of the European Lecanosticta acicola (EPPO A2 List) populations. Results strongly suggest that at least two introductions of L. acicola have occurred from North America into Europe in the past, most likely as a consequence of human activities and movements of infected plants (Janoušek et al., 2016).
Studies were conducted in Southern Finland from 2011 to 2013 in carrot (Daucus carota) fields to determine the frequency and occurrence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (the potato haplotypes are listed in the EPPO A1 List). The bacterium was detected in 6 out of 7 regions where the main carrot cultivation areas are located. The highest disease incidence was found in the area where the disease was originally found (Southwestern Finland). In the regions Tavastia Proper and Southwestern Finland, the bacterium was found in 26 out of the 30 randomly studied fields. In approximately a third of these fields, 10% of the plants were symptomatic. In this area, 60% of the collected specimens of the vector Trioza apicalis (carrot psyllid) tested positive for the bacterium. The disease incidence was variable in South Ostrobothnia (Western Finland) and low in South Savonia (Eastern Finland). In these studies, only ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ haplotype C was identified (Haapalainen et al., 2017).
In March 2015, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) was detected in the Dominican Republic near the international airport of Punta Cana. Eradication measures, including the release of sterile males were taken. In July 2017, the Minister of Agriculture officially declared the eradication of the pest from the Dominican Republic (Internet, 2017).
- Host plants
Studies have been conducted in China on potential hosts of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (EPPO A2 List). The bacterium was detected in the following three wild or weed plant species which were growing under or nearby infected plants of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.): Alternanthera philoxeroides, Paulownia tomentosa and Setaria viridis. Leaves of these plants were showing necrotic spots resembling those caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae on kiwifruit (Liu et al., 2016).
In China, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List) was detected in Salvia miltiorrhiza fields in the Shaanxi province during studies carried out in 2014/2015. Affected plants showed leaf reddening. In China, S. miltiorrhiza is cultivated for medicinal purposes (Yang et al., 2016).
During studies carried out on commercially available Apiaceae seeds, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (the potato haplotypes are listed in EPPO A1 List) was detected in parsley seeds (Petroselinum crispum). Both D and E haplotypes were found in parsley seeds. Various cultivars of parsley from different seed sources were tested and all gave positive results, thus suggesting that parsley could be a major host of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’. However, the lack of reported disease problems with parsley also suggests that symptoms are probably not obvious in this plant (Monger and Jeffries, 2016).
The natural spread of Dothistroma septosporum (EU Annexes) has been studied in Southern England (GB) using plant traps. The fungus was considered to be primarily dispersed by rain splash over relatively short distances but this study has shown that it could be dispersed over several hundreds of metres from an inoculum source. A maximum dispersal distance of more than 1400 m (i.e. 1436 m) has been recorded in these studies (Mullet et al., 2016).
- Quarantine treatments
Experiments conducted in South Africa have shown that cold treatments at 0.8°C for 20 days and at -0.6°C for 18 days were effective against Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – EPPO A2 List) in table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Redglobe). The authors concluded that these cold treatments could be recommended in international trade (Ware & du Toit, 2016).
- New pests and taxonomy
Two new moth species, Thaumetopoea hellenica sp. n. and Thaumetopoea mediterranea sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) have been described from Southern Europe. Adults of these new species were caught in traps which had been placed in 4 urban and recreational places during a research project about Thaumetopoea spp. in Southern Europe. T. hellenica was found in 2 localities in Greece: Magnessia (Thessaly) and Kifissia, Ktima Syggrou (Athens). During these studies, larvae were observed feeding on Pinus halepensis. Adults of T. mediterranea were caught in Trapani on the Island of Pantelleria (Italy). Larvae were observed feeding on Cedrus spp. Both T. hellenica and T. mediterranea species are morphologically similar to T. pityocampa, although some differences can be observed (e.g. wing patterns, canthus shape, male genitalia). Genetic studies have revealed significant differences between these three taxa (Trematerra et al., 2017).
Bratsch D, Zlesak D, Mollov D, Lockhart B (2017) First report of Rose rosette virus associated with rose rosette disease in Rosa hybrida in Minnesota. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-01-17-0008-BR
French JM, Beacham J, Garcia A, Goldberg NP, Thomas SH, Hanson SF (2017) First report of stem and bulb nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci on garlic in New Mexico. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-12-16-0069-BR
Germain JF, Lemmet S, Balmès V, Streito JC (2017) Incursion d’un nouvel aleurode nuisible aux ficus en France. Phytoma n°705, 9-11.
Giampetruzzi A, Saponari M, Loconsole G, Boscia D, Savino VN, Almeida RPP, Zicca S, Landa BB, Chacon-Diaz C, Saldarelli P (2017) Genome-wide analysis provides evidence on the genetic relatedness of the emergent Xylella fastidiosa genotype in Italy to isolates from Central America. Phytopathology 107(7), 816-827.
Haapalainen M, Kivimäki P, Latvala S, Rastas M, Hannukkala A, Jauhiainen L, Lemmetty A, Pirhonen M, Virtanen A, Nissinen AI (2017) Frequency and occurrence of the carrot pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype C in Finland. Plant Pathology 66(4), 559-570.
- Ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’alimentation. Alim’agri (2017-07-10) Première observation de Phytophthora ramorum sur mélèze en France. http://agriculture.gouv.fr/premiere-observation-de-phytophthora-ramorum-sur-meleze-en-france
- Ministerio de Agricultura. República Dominicana se declara libre de la mosca del Mediterráneo. http://www.agricultura.gob.do/index.php/noticias/item/631-republica-dominicana-de-declara-libre-de-la-mosca-del-mediterraneo
Janoušek J, Wingfield MJ, Marmolejo Monsivais JG, Jankovský L, Stauffer C, Konečný A, Barnes I (2016) Genetic analyses suggest separate introductions of the pine pathogen Lecanosticta acicola into Europe. Phytopathology 106(11), 1413-1425.
Katanić Z, Krstin L, Ježić M, Zebec M, Ćurković-Perica M (2016) Molecular characterization of elm yellows phytoplasmas in Croatia and their impact on Ulmus spp. Plant Pathology 65(9), 1430-1440.
Kazak C, Döker I, Karut K (2017) First record of invasive tomato spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Turkey. International Journal of Acarology 43(4), 325-328 (abst.).
Liu P, Xue S, He R, Hu J, Wang X, Jia B, Gallipoli L, Mazzaglia A, Balestra GM, Zhu L (2016) Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae isolated from non-kiwifruit plant species in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology 145(4), 743-754.
Monger WA, Jeffries CJ (2016) First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in parsley (Petroselinum crispum) seed. New Disease Reports 34, 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.031
Mullett MS, Tubby KV, Webber JF, Brown AV (2016) A reconsideration of natural dispersal distances of the pine pathogen Dothistroma septosporum. Plant Pathology 65(9), 1462-1472.
Nagy A, Szarukan I, Csabai J, Molnar A, Molnar BP, Karpati Z, Szanyi S, Toth M (2017) Distribution of the box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis Walker 1859) in the north-eastern part of the Carpathian Basin with a new Ukrainian record and Hungarian data. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 47. DOI: 10.1111/epp.12384
Silva AC, Ricalde MP (2017) First occurrence of Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology DOI 10.1007/s13744-017-0523-1
Trematerra P, Scalercio S, Colacci M (2017) Thaumetopoea hellenica sp. n. and Thaumetopoea mediterranea sp. n. new taxa from southern Europe (Lepidoptera Notodontidae Thaumetopoeinae). Redia 100, 3-10 (via PestLens).
Ware AB, Du Toit CLN (2016) False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), cold disinfestation treatment using grapes as the test medium. Journal of Economic Entomology 109(5), 2238-2242.
Yang R, Wang G, Wang S, Zhang D, Wei L, Chen H, Li O, Hu X (2015) Molecular identification and diversity of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ associated with red-leaf disease of Salvia miltiorrhiza in China. Journal of Phytopathology 164(11/12), 882-889.