New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus, CPMMV – EU Annexes) has recently been reported from Australia. The virus has been detected in Queensland in 2 locations (Fassifern and Lockyer Valley, Queensland) on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Wyatt), soybean (Glycine max) and chia (Salvia hispanica). In Fassifern, the disease incidence in common bean crops was high (50 to 90% symptomatic plants).
The pest status of Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus) in Australia is officially declared as: Present: only in some areas (IPPC, 2017).
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from Nigeria. During a nematode survey, tubers of Dioscorea rotundata (yam) showing galls were collected from markets and farmer’s fields from November 2012 to February 2013. Laboratory analysis (isozyme patterns, PCR, pathogenicity tests) confirmed the identity of the nematode in samples collected from the Nigerian states of Anambra, Niger and Abuja (Federal Capital Territory). This is also the first time that M. enterolobii is found causing galls on D. rotundata (Kolombia et al., 2016).
The situation of Meloidogyne enterolobii in Nigeria can be described as follows: Present: only in some areas.
- Detailed records
In Australia, Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae - EPPO A2 List) has been found on Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. Eradication is not considered feasible but measures are being taken to prevent any further spread (IPPC, 2017).
The pest status of Liriomyza sativae in Australia is officially declared as: Present: subject to official control (IPPC, 2017).
In Australia, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Scolyticae - EPPO Alert List) has been detected 5 times in Queensland. Due to the distance between the detection sites and the broad host range of X. crassiusculus, its eradication is not considered to be feasible.
The pest status of Xylosandrus crassiusculus in Australia is officially declared as: Present: only in some areas (IPPC, 2017).
- Host plants
In Pakistan, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, EPPO Alert List) has been detected in a soybean (Glycine max) field in Faisalabad. Affected plants showed severe leaf curling, vein thickening and leaf yellowing (Jamil et al., 2017).
In the Czech Republic, Little cherry virus 1 (Velarivirus, LChV-1 – EU Annexes) has been found in apricot (Prunus armeniaca). During a survey carried out in a germplasm collection located in Lednice in summer 2016, the virus was detected in 5 cultivars. These trees were not showing any obvious symptoms, such as leaf discoloration or fruit quality reduction. (Šafářová et al., 2017).
- New pests and taxonomy
Blueberry fruit drop disease was first detected in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) plants in British Columbia (Canada) in the late 1990s, and in a single field in Northern Washington state (USA) in 2012. On infected plants, young leaves show a transient red coloration of the veins during the blooming period, and flowers display red stripes on their corollas. After bloom, plants appear normal but abort nearly 100% of their fruit, approximately 3 weeks before harvest when the berries are 3-5 mm in diameter. Recent studies have shown that the causal agent of blueberry fruit drop disease is a new virus species, belonging to the Caulimoviridae family and probably representing a new genus, which has been called Blueberry fruit drop-associated virus. Studies are being done to determine whether this virus also occurs in native vegetation adjacent to infected blueberry fields. In addition, efforts are being made in collaboration with growers to eradicate this virus (Diaz-Lara and Martin, 2016).
A new species of Liberibacter, tentatively called ‘Candidatus Liberibacter brunswickensis’ has been identified in Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae - Australian eggplant psyllid). This is the first time that a Liberibacter species is found in Australia, as well as in the psyllid genus Acizzia. For the moment, ‘Ca. L. brunswickensis’ has not been associated with any plant disease. A. solanicola is a psyllid species, first described in 2010, native to Australia which has also been found in New Zealand. It is noted that it has broadened its host range from Solanum pterophilum (its native host) to other introduced solanaceous plants, such as Solanum melongena (aubergine), Brugmansia sp., Physalis peruviana, and S. mauritianum. Further studies about the biology, host range and distribution of ‘Ca. L. brunswickensis’ will be carried out (Morris et al., 2017).
Diaz-Lara A, Martin RR (2016) Blueberry fruit drop-associated virus: a new member of the family Caulimoviridae isolated from blueberry exhibiting fruit-drop symptoms. Plant Disease 100(11), 2211-2214.
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports - Australia (2017-04-24) Detection of Liriomyza sativae in Far North Queensland. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/australia/pestreports/2017/04/detection-of-liriomyza-sativae-in-far-north-queensland/
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports - Australia (2017-04-24) Detection of Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Granulate ambrosia beetle) in Queensland. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/australia/pestreports/2017/04/detection-of-xylosandrus-crassiculus-granulate-ambrosia-beetle-in-queensland/
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Australia (AUS-83/1 of 2017-05-17) Detection of Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus) in Queensland. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/australia/pestreports/2017/05/detection-of-cowpea-mild-mottle-virus-carlavirus-in-queensland/
Jamil N, Rehman A, Hamza M, Hafeez A, Ismail H, Zubair M, Mansoor S, Amin I (2017) First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus, a bipartite begomovirus, infecting soybean (Glycine max). Plant Disease 101(5), p 845.
Kolombia YA, Lava Kumar P, Claudius-Cole AO, Karssen G, Viaene N, Coyne D, Bert W (2016) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii causing tuber galling damage on white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) in Nigeria. Plant Disease 100(10), 2171-2174.
Morris J, Shiller J, Mann R, Smith G, Yen A, Rodoni B (2017) Novel ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species identified in the Australian eggplant psyllid, Acizzia solanicola. Microbial Biotechnology. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.12707
Šafářová D, Faure C, Candresse T, Navrátil M, Nečas T, Marais A (2017) First report of Little cherry virus 1 infecting apricot in the Czech Republic. Plant Disease 101(5), p 845.