Five new alien plant species in the flora of Montenegro
Recent botanical surveys in Montenegro have identified five new species to the flora of the country. These comprise Coreopsis tinctoria (Asteraceae), Ipomoea indica (Convolvulaceae), Lupinus x regalis (Fabaceae), Physalis angulata (Solanaceae), and Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae). All the species are grown as ornamental species in Montenegro and thus plants for planting are considered the most likely pathway for their introduction.
Coreopsis tinctoria is an annual species native to North America where it is found growing in low wet areas along the coast. The species was first introduced into Europe in the 1830s and grows throughout Europe in disturbed habitats up to 1 000 m a.s.l. In Montenegro, the species was identified in the area of Long Beach in the municipality of Ulcinj. Approximately 20 individuals were scattered over an area of 16 m2.
Ipomoea indica is a perennial climber growing up to 15 m in height. The species has a pan-tropical native range and is considered invasive in a number of regions (including New Zealand, Hawaii and South Africa). In Montenegro, I. indica has been identified forming very dense strands on the walls of abandoned buildings or on trees in abandoned waste ground at several sites between the settlements of Meljine and Igalo in the Bay of Boka Kotorska.
Lupinus x regalis
Lupinus × regalis is a garden hybrid (or hybrid complex) with the parents being L. polyphyllus and L. arboreus (both native to North America). In Montenegro, several individuals of Lupinus × regalis were recorded in the urban area of Kolašin, in an old ruin frequently used to dump unwanted vegetative material and waste.
Physalis angulata is a herbaceous annual species native to the Americas. The species has been introduced into many tropical and sub-tropical regions where it is reported as invasive in parts of Asia, Africa and Australia. P. angulata was recorded in Montenegro in the area of Long Beach in the municipality of Ulcinj. It inhabited moist waysides in an open coastal forest on sandy dunes. The population counted was 15 plants.
Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae: EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants) is an erect rhizomatous perennial. The species is native to North America and was introduced into the EPPO region in the mid-1600s. In Montenegro, S. canadensis was identified along the roadside in the village Vir, near the city of Nikšić. The population formed a dense patch that covered approximately 10 m2.
Stešević D, Bubanja N (2017) Five new alien species in the flora of Montenegro: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr., Lupinus x regalis Bergmans, Physalis angulata L., and Solidago canadensis L. and new possible threats to the biodiversity. Acta Botanica Croatica 76, 98-102.