New data on quarantine pests and pests on the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms from ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Acizzia jamatonica (Homoptera: Psyllidae – formerly on EPPO Alert List) was found on Albizia julibrissin in a private garden in Douglasville, Georgia (US) in September 2006. This is the first report of this pest in North America (Halbert, 2007a). Present, first recorded in Georgia in 2006.
Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae – formerly on EPPO Alert List) occurs in Sweden (Svensson, 2004). Present, no details.
Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae – EPPO A1 List) occurs in Nicaragua in pine forests (Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa). A severe outbreak took place from 1998 to 2002 during which 30;000 ha of pine forests were killed. A strategic plan for fires and bark beetles has been put in place to protect forests in Nicaragua (Billings et al., 2004). Present, no details.
Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Aphalaridae - EPPO A1 List) occurs in Dominica. An infestation was reported on Murraya paniculata in Roseau in January 2007 (Halbert, 2007b). Present, no details.
Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Aphalaridae - EPPO A1 List) occurs in Antigua and Barbuda. An infestation was reported on Citrus at a hotel in St. Johns, Antigua in March 2006 (Halbert, 2007b). Present, found in Antigua.
In Norway, Fusarium foetens (EPPO A2 List) was reported for the first time in 2006. It was found in 5 nurseries on begonias but not in propagation material (Bioforsk website). Present, no details.
Iris yellow spot tospovirus (EPPO Alert List) has been isolated from onion tissues (Allium cepa) collected in Guatemala (Nischwitz, 2007). Present no details.
Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae – formerly on EPPO Alert List) has been reported in Argentina and Venezuela on Allium crops since the 1990s (Vasicek et al., 2007). Present, no details.
In 2006, Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Flatidae) was found in new sites in Croatia (Zagreb, Hvar, and Vrgorac) and its presence was recorded for the first time in the Herzegovina region of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostar and Ljubuški) causing severe damage to grapevine (Gotlin Čuljak et al., 2007).
- Detailed records
In November 2007, 5 immature females of Anastrapha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 List) were detected in the County of San Diego, California (US). Eradication measures were immediately applied. The pest status of Anastrapha ludens in the USA is officially declared as follows: Transient, actionable, and under eradication (NAPPO, 2007-12).
In Argentina, a single specimen of Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – formerly on EPPO Alert List) was first detected in 2003 at one site in the province of Buenos Aires. Further findings were then made, all in the province of Buenos Aires on old Cupressus macrocarpa dead branches, generally broken by strong winds and fallen to the ground or hanging from living trees (Turienzo, 2007).
In September 2007, 3 immature females and 10 adult males of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) were detected in a residential area in the County of Solano, California (US). 33 larvae were also detected in peach fruits collected from the same area. In September and October 2007, C. capitata (3 males and 4 females) were caught in 4 private properties in the County of Santa Clara. In October and November 2007, C. capitata was also detected in the County of Los Angeles in 4 private properties. In all cases, eradication measures were immediately applied. The pest status of Ceratitis capitata in the USA is officially declared as follows: Transient, actionable, and under eradication (NAPPO, 2007-09, 2007-10, and 2007-11).
In Papua New Guinea, citrus huanglongbing (associated with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ – EPPO A1 List) was found during a delimiting survey in 2002, in the Sandaun Province near the border with Indonesia (see EPPO RS 2003/011). Later surveys done in 2002-2004 showed that the disease and its vector Diaphorina citri (EPPO A1 List) only had a limited spread. In addition, no evidence was found for the presence of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ in Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Samoa and Tonga. Finally, several citrus samples collected from Papua New Guinea and testing positive for ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ were also found infected by Citrus tristeza virus (Closterovirus, CTV – EPPO A2 List), thus confirming the presence of CTV in Papua New Guinea (Davis et al., 2005).
Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae – EPPO Alert List) was reported for the first time in Florida (US) in August 2007. A minor infestation was found in Homestead (Miami-Dade County) on avocado (Persea americana) in a private garden (Halbert, 2007c).
In Canada, Puccinia horiana (EPPO A2 List) was detected in September 2007 in British Columbia. It was detected in one nursery growing chrysanthemum outdoors. Eradication measures were immediately applied. The pest status of Puccinia horiana in Canada is officially declared as follows: Transient and under eradication (NAPPO, 2007-10).
In April 2007, a single adult male of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) was caught in a pheromone trap near a nursery in Miami-Dade County, Florida (US). Further traps were placed in the vicinity of the nursery concerned but no other specimens were caught (University of Florida Pest Alert, 2007).
In autumn 2006, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus – EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Arizona (US) on tomato plants growing in private gardens. Affected plants were also infested by Bemisia tabaci biotype B (ProMed, 2007).
- Host plants
In Jamaica, coconut lethal yellowing is the most important disease affecting coconuts (Cocos nucifera). Studies were conducted in 2005 to identify alternate hosts of the Coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma (EPPO A1 List). The presence of a phytoplasma showing 99% similarity with the Coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma found in Jamaica, Nevis and Florida (16Sr IV group) was detected in Emelia fosbergii and Synedrella nodiflora (both Asteraceae) (Brown et al., 2008).
Natural infection by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (Stolbur phytoplasma – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in Solanum malacoxylon (Solanaceae) plants growing in the botanical garden of Milan University, Italy. Affected plants showed yellowing symptoms with necrosis of leaf margins and a typical bending of the apical part of the stem. S. malacoxylon is a perennial shrub originating from South America where it grows in moist open grasslands. Because of its ability to produce vitamin D, this plant is of biomedical interest (Iriti et al., 2008).
Billings RF, Clarke SR, Espino Mendoza V, Cordón Cabrera, Meléndez Figueroa B, Ramón Campos J, Baeza G (2004) Bark beetle outbreaks and fire: a devastating combination for Central America’s pine forests. FAO, Unasylva no. 217, 15-21.
Bioforsk website (last retrieved in 2007-11). Fusarium foetens in Begonia – Survey in Norway. http://www.bioforsk.no
Brown SE, Been BO, McLaughlin (2007) First report of the presence of the lethal yellowing group (16Sr IV) of phytoplasmas in the weeds Emelia fosbergii and Synedrella nodiflora in Jamaica. New Disease Reports volume 16 (August 2007-Januray 2008). http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/jan2008/2007-75.asp
Davis RI, Gunua TG, Kame MF, Tenakanai D, Ruabete TK (2005) Spread of citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) following incursion into Papua New Guinea. Australasian Plant Pathology 34, 517-524.
Gotlin Čuljak T, Ostojíc I, Skelin I, Grubišić D, Jelovčan S (2007) [Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Homoptera: Flatidae) – potentially threatening pest in new areas.] Entomologia Croatica 11(1-2), 75-81 (in Croatian).
Halbert SE (2007a) Entomology section. Tri-ology 46(2), 5-11.
Halbert SE (2007b) Entomology section. Tri-ology 46(1), 6-11.
Halbert SE (2007c) Entomology section. Tri-ology 46(4), 6-10.
Iriti M, Quaglino F, Maffi D, Casati P, Bianco PA, Faoro F (2008) Solanum malacoxylon, a new natural host of Stolbur phytoplasma. Journal of Phytopathology 156(1), 8-14.
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System – Official Pest Reports (2007-12-03) Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly) – Quarantined area in San Diego County, California - United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=301
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System – Official Pest Reports (2007-11-14) Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) - Quarantined area in Los Angeles County, California – United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=294
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System – Official Pest Reports (2007-10-29) Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) - Quarantined area in Santa Clara County, California. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=291
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System – Official Pest Reports (2007-10-12) Chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana) – Find in British Columbia nursery facility. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=289
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System – Official Pest Reports (2007-09-20) Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) – Quarantine area in Solano County California – United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=285
Nischwitz C, Pappu HR, Mullis SW, Sparks AN, Langston DR, Csinos AS, Gitaitis RD (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of Iris yellow spot virus isolates from onion (Allium cepa) in Georgia (USA) and Peru. Journal of Phytopathology 155(9), 531-535.
ProMed posting of 2007-02-. Yellow leaf curl, Tomato – USA (Arizona): first report. http://www.promedmail.org
Svensson I (2004) [Remarkable records of Microlepidoptera in Sweden during 2003]. Entomologisk Tidskrift 125(1/2), 43-53 (abst.).
Turienzo P (2007) New records and emergence period of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) [Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini] in Argentina. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 33(3), 341-349.
University of Florida Pest Alert (2007-10-06) Adult male Spodoptera litura found in Florida. http://pestalert.ifas.ufl.edu
Vasicek A, La Rossa FR, Paglioni A, Lanati S, López M (2007) [Biological and populational functionality of Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on seven garlic cultivars under laboratory conditions.] Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 33(3), 325-331 (in Spanish).