New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Little cherry virus-1 (Velarivirus, LChV-1 – EU Annexes) is reported for the first time from Slovakia. LChV-1 was detected during a survey conducted in cherry (Prunus avium) trees growing in orchards, gardens and botanical collections. LChV-1-infected samples came from 3 localities (Bratislava, Ivanka pri Dunaji, Brdarka) and all had been collected from local and old cherry genotypes (more than 20 years old). No symptoms were observed on cherries. It is thought that LChV-1 has probably been present in Slovakia for a long period (Glasa et al., 2015). Present, first reported in 2015 in 3 localities.
Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Morocco. The virus was detected during a survey conducted from October 2015 to April 2016 in 7 different regions. Severe symptoms were observed on a few plants. A total of 315 samples were collected from different tomato cultivars and tested (DAS-ELISA). Results showed that PepMV is widely distributed in Morocco with an average infection rate of 21%. In particular, in the region of Souss Massa, 70% of the tested plants were infected. Representative samples from each region were submitted to additional RT-PCR testing and 40% of the 83 tested samples were infected by PepMV. It is also noted that during this survey the presence of Tomato torrado virus (Torradovirus – formerly EPPO Alert List) was also detected for the first time in Morocco (Imane, 2016). Present, widespread.
- Detailed records
In Albania, previous surveys on Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) had shown that PPV-M largely prevailed whereas PPV-D and PPV-Rec were less represented. In spring 2011, a new field survey was carried out. A total of 11 PPV isolates were collected from symptomatic plants in 10 orchards located at Kavajë, Elbasan, Pogradec and Korçë, and tested (ELISA, sequencing). As a result, 5 isolates were found to be PPV-M, 4 were PPV-Rec, 1 was PPV-D and 1 was PPV-T. This is the first time that PPV-T is detected in Albania (Palmisano et al., 2015).
A multiplex test has been developed to detect and identify simultaneously 26 Phytophthora (including P. fragariae, P. rubi, P. lateralis, P. ramorum and P. kernoviae) at species level and 22 other Phytophthora at clade or subclade level. (Kostov et al., 2016).
- Host plants
Potato yellowing virus (Ilarvirus, PYV – EPPO A1 List) was first found in potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Peru in the 1990s, later in wild potato (Solanum fernandezianum) in Chile and more recently in native potato (Solanum phureja) in Ecuador. In December 2014, symptoms of foliar mosaic and necrotic spotting of leaves and stems accompanied by bud and fruit necrosis were observed in pepper (Capsicum annuum) fields of Puembo, Pichincha province. Laboratory analysis (DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR, sequencing) confirmed the presence of PYV in diseased capsicum plants (Sivaprasad et al., 2015).
In the Salento peninsula (Apulia), Southern Italy, a survey was initiated to verify the health status of a number of ornamental and forestry plants growing in nurseries, public and private gardens which might be exposed to high inoculum pressure of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (EPPO A1 List). Samples were collected from 207 conifer species, 208 succulent plant species, and 105 species belonging to Arecaceae, Musaceae and Cycadaceae, and tested (DAS-ELISA, PCR). None of the tested plant species was found to be infected by X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Potere et al., 2015).
Recent studies carried out in Iran concluded that wild almond (Prunus scoparia) may serve as a natural reservoir for ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ which is associated with almond witches’ broom (EPPO Alert List) (Salehi et al., 2015).
Glasa M, Benediková D, Predajňa L (2015) First report of Little cherry virus-1 in Slovakia. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(3), p 542.
Imane B (2016) Survey and molecular characterization. Pepino Mosaic virus (PepMV) infecting tomato crops in Morocco. Plant Protection News in the Arab countries and Near East. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter 68, p 15.
Kostov K, Verstappen ECP, Bergervoet JHW, de Weerdt M, Schoen CD, Slavov S, Bonants PJM (2016) Multiplex detection and identification of Phytophthora spp. using target-specific primer extension and Luminex xTAG technology. Plant Pathology 65(6), 1008-1021.
Palmisano F, Minafra A, Myrta A, Boscia D (2015) First report of Plum pox virus strain PPV-T in Albania. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(2), p 403.
Potere O, Susca L, Loconsole G, Saponari M, Boscia D, Savino V, Martelli GP (2015) Survey for the presence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (strain CoDiRO) in some forestry and ornamental species in the Salento peninsula. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(2), 373-376.
Salehi M, Salehi E, Abbasian M, Izadpanah K (2015) Wild almond (Prunus scoparia), a potential source of almond witches’ broom phytoplasma in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(2), 377-381.
Sivaprasad Y, Garrido P, Mendez K, Garrido A. Ramos L (2015) First report of Potato yellowing virus infecting pepper in Ecuador. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(suppl.), S75.