New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – formerly EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Ecuador. In April 2015, straw-coloured, irregularly shaped, chlorotic or necrotic lesions on leaves were observed in two onion (Allium cepa) fields located in the provinces of Pichincha and Tungurahua. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of IYSV in symptomatic leaf samples (Sivaprasad et al., 2016). Present, only in some areas.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi (formerly EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Switzerland. In 2011, bleeding cankers were observed on 42 (out of 300) horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum) in a public park in Rapperswil-Jona. In 2015, bark samples were collected from 3 symptomatic trees and tested (isolation, PCR, sequencing, pathogenicity tests). Results confirmed the presence of P. syringae pv. aesculi, together with 2 non-fluorescent Pseudomonas species and Erwinia billingiae. However, Koch’s postulates were completed with 2 isolates of P. syringae pv. aesculi. It is noted that bleeding canker symptoms were moderate and they will be monitored to follow their progression (Meyer et al., 2016). Present, only in some areas.
- Detailed records
Little cherry virus 2 (Ampelovirus – EU Annexes) was detected on sweet cherry (Prunus avium) samples from Shandong province, China (Zong et al., 2015).
Laurel wilt caused by Raffaelea lauricola (EPPO Alert List) and its vector Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) have been found in Louisiana (US) on Sassafras albidum. The first symptoms of wilting were observed near Bernice (Union Parish) in September 2014. Further surveys detected the disease in additional sites in Northern Louisiana (Lincoln, Clairborne and Union parishes) on sassafras (Fraedrich et al., 2015).
A polyprobe (poly-3) has been developed for the simultaneous detection by non-radioactive molecular hybridization of three different tomato pathogens: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List), Pepino mosaic virus (EPPO A2 List) and Mexican papita viroid. It is considered that this technology could be a useful tool in both routine field surveys of tomato crops and production of pathogen-free planting material (Zamora-Macorra et al., 2015).
A new LAMP test has been developed for the detection of Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 List). The whole procedure of sample preparation and testing has been designed and optimized for on-site detection and can be completed in one hour (Kogovšek et al., 2015).
A new LAMP test has been developed for the rapid detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (EPPO A2 List) in anthurium (Niu et al., 2015).
A new real-time LAMP test has been developed in Italy for the detection of Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) in host plants and insect vectors. As the DNA extraction procedure has been simplified, this test can be used in the field and has proven to be simple, rapid and low cost (Yaseen et al., 2015).
- New host plants
Field surveys were conducted in Michigan and Oregon (US) to study potential wild and ornamental host fruit of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO A2 List). These studies identified new hosts or confirmed previously reported hosts including: Cornus sp., Cotoneaster lacteus, Elaeagnus umbellata, Frangula purshiana, Lindera benzoin, Lonicera caerulea, Mahonia aquifolium, Morus sp., Phytolacca americana, Prunus avium, Prunus laurocerasus, Prunus lusitanica, Rubus armeniacus, Rubus spectabilis, Sambucus nigra, Sarcococca confusa, Solanum dulcamara, Symphoricarpos albus (Lee et al., 2015).
Studies conducted in Texas (US) have shown that Solanum elaeagnifolium (EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants) can be a weed host for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (potato haplotypes are included in EPPO A1 List) and thus act as a reservoir for the pathogen. This underlines the importance of managing S. elaeagnifolium growing in the vicinity of potato fields to prevent spread of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (Thinakaran et al., 2015).
Studies have showed that carrot (Daucus carota) seeds can transmit ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (potato haplotypes are included in the EPPO A1 List). It is noted that measures to prevent the movement of infected carrot seed lots would be needed (Bertolini et al., 2015).
- New pests
In Morocco, a new root-knot nematode has been isolated from soil under wild olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) at Cape Spartel (near Tangier). This new species has been called Meloidogyne spartelensis n. sp. However, pathogenicity experiments should be carried out to verify whether olive is a host plant of M. spartelensis (Ali et al., 2015).
In China, a new root-lesion nematode has been isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum sinensis) in Guangxi autonomous region, and called Pratylenchus parazeae n. sp. As P. parazeae was isolated together with P. zeae from the same sugarcane field, further evaluation of its pathogenicity and potential economic damage is needed (Wang et al., 2015).
A new longidorid nematode has been isolated from soil associated with bonsai plants of Lagerstroemia indica imported from China into Italy. This new species has been called Longidorus asiaticus n. sp. (Trisciuzzi et al., 2015).
Ali N, Tavoillot J, Mateille T, Chapuis E, Besnard G, El Bakkali A, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Liebanas G, Castillo P, Palomares-Rius JE (2015) A new root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spartelensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Meloidogynidae) in Northern Morocco. European Journal of Plant Pathology 143(1), 25-42.
Bertolini E, Teresani GR, Loiseau M, Tanaka FAO, Barbé, Martinez C, Gentit P, López MM, Cambra M (2015) Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in carrot seeds. Plant Pathology 64(2), 276-285.
Fraedrich SW, Johnson JW, Menard RD, Harrington TC, Olatinwo R, Best GS (2015) First report of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: the disease continues westward on sassafras. Florida Entomologist 98(4), 1266-1268.
Kogovšek P, Hodgetts J, Hall J, Prezelj N, Nikolić P, Mehle N, Lenarčič R, Rotter A, Dickinson M, Boonham N, Dermastia M, Ravnikar M (2015) LAMP assay and rapid sample preparation method for on-site detection of flavescence dorée phytoplasma in grapevine. Plant Pathology 64(2), 286-296.
Lee JC, Dreves AJ, Cave AM, Kawai S, Isaacs R, Miller JC., van Timmeren S, Bruck DJ (2015) Infestation of wild and ornamental noncrop fruits by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 108(2), 117-129.
Meyer JB, Brunner M, Rigling D (2016) First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on horse chestnut in Switzerland. New Disease Reports 33, 19. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.033.019
Niu JH, Gao YR, Yin JM, Leng QY, Yang GS, Wang C, Ren Y (2015) Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of bacterial blight pathogen (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae) in anthurium. European Journal of Plant Pathology 142(4), 801-813.
Sivaprasad Y, Garrido P, Mendez K, Garrido A, Ramos L (2016) First report of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in the Pichincha and Tungurahua provinces of Ecuador. New Disease Reports 33, 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.033.016
Thinakaran J, Pierson E, Kunta M, Munyaneza JE, Rush CM, Henne DC (2015) Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium), a reservoir host for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Phytopathology 99(7), 910-915.
Trisciuzzi N, Archidona-Yuste A, Troccoli A, Fanelli E, De Luca F, Vovlas N, Castillo P (2015) Description of a new needle nematode, Longidorus asiaticus n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), from the rhizosphere of crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) bonsai trees imported into Italy from China. European Journal of Plant Pathology 143(3), 567-580.
Wang H, Zhuo K, ye W, Liao J (2015) Morphological and molecular characterisation of Pratylenchus parazeae n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) parasitizing sugarcane in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology 143(1), 173-191.
Yaseen T, Drago S, Valentini F, Elbeaino T, Stampone G, Digiaro M, D’Onghia AM (2015) On-site detection of Xylella fastidiosa in host plants and in “spy insects” using the real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 54(3), 488−496.
Zamora-Macorra EJ, Ochoa-Martínez DL, Valdovinos-Ponce G, Rojas-Martínez R, Ramírez-Rojas S, Sánchez-Navarro JA, Pallás V, Aparicio F (2015) Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pepino mosaic virus and Mexican papita viroid by non-radioactive molecular hybridization using a unique polyprobe. European Journal of Plant Pathology 143(4), 779-787.
Zong X, Wang W, Wei H, Wang J, Yan X, Hammond RW, Liu Q (2015) Incidence of sweet cherry viruses in Shandong province, China and a case study on multiple infection with five viruses. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(1), 61-68.