New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Heteroptera: Tingidae) was found for the first time in Turkey in 2007. It was recorded from an area of approximately 120 km² between Taşkesti and Abant in the province of Bolu, Black Sea region (Mutun, 2009). Present, found in Black Sea region. This pest has also been recently reported from Poland (Lis, 2009). Present, no details.
During studies on the molecular detection of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (Cocadviroid, CCCVd – EPPO A1 List), it was found that closely related viroids could be detected in samples of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) collected from a commercial plantation in Malaysia and 1 sample of coconut (Cocos nucifera) from Sri Lanka. Although this suggests that CCCVd might be present in these countries, this remains to be confirmed. Further surveys on viroid(s) identity and incidence are needed (Vadamalai et al., 2009).
Colombian datura virus is reported for the first time in Italy. It was detected in plants of Brugmansia spp. growing in several private gardens and in one nursery near Bari, Puglia region (Vovlas et al., 2009). Present, found in Puglia.
The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in the United Kingdom in 2007. D. oxycoccana was found in a nursery in the Midlands (England), and was suspected to have been present for at least one year already. Surveys conducted in 2009 revealed that D. oxycoccana was widely distributed in England (nurseries and production sites in the south, south-east, east and north-west England). Considering the wide distribution of the pest, no phytosanitary measures were proposed to eradicate or contain it (Fera, 2009). Present, widespread in England.
Symptoms of pear decline (disease associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ – EPPO A2 List) have been observed in several pear-growing regions in Iran. Studies confirmed the presence of ‘Ca. P. pyri’ in pear samples collected from the province of Fars. Symptomatic pear trees of provinces other than Fars were not tested in this study. This the first report of pear decline phytoplasma in Iran (Salehi et al., 2008). Present, no details.
In Chile, extensive surveys were carried out from 2002 to 2006 to identify phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows. Several phytoplasmas belonging to different ribosomal groups were detected including phytoplasmas related to those causing bois noir (stolbur) in Europe. This is the first time that stolbur phytoplasma strains are reported from South America (Gajardo et al., 2009). Present, no details.
Lopholeucaspis japonica (Hemiptera: Diaspididae – EPPO A2 List) is recorded as present in Greece (Milonas et al., 2009). Present, no details.
Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV - EPPO A2 List) occurs in Indonesia. TSWV was detected in samples of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and chilli pepper (Capsicum spp.) collected from West Java during surveys conducted in 2008 (Damayanti & Naidu, 2009). Present, detected in Java.
- Detailed records
Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psylloidea – formerly EPPO Alert List) continues to spread in the EPPO region. In September 2008, it was detected for the first time in the city of Jerez de la Frontera (province of Cádiz, Andalucía) in Spain. Several groups of Albizia julibrissin trees were heavily infested by this psyllid (Sánchez & Burckhardt, 2009).
Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO Alert list) occurs in Hainan province, China. It was first detected in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings in 1998 (Feng et al., 2009).
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Islas Canarias, Spain. The disease was first detected in 2002 in Tenerife and Gran Canaria, and in 2004 in La Palma. Official control measures were taken by the local authorities (analysis of tomato seeds, careful plant management and glasshouse disinfection) and led to a drastic reduction in the disease incidence during the following years. However, the bacterium has occasionally reappeared in different locations in Islas Canarias since then (de León et al., 2009).
Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Sardegna, Italy (Zanda et al., 2009).
In November 2008, the presence of Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A2 List) was noticed for the first time in Andalucía, in the province of Huelva. Its parasitoid, Anaphes nitens (Hymenoptera: Myrmaridae), was also found in eggs (Sánchez-García et al., 2009).
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae - EPPO A1 List) was first found in the Northern Mariana Islands in 2003. It occurs in Rota, Tinian and Saipan (Reddy et al., 2009).
In Puglia (Southern Italy), two new outbreaks of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) have recently been detected at Cerignola in apricot and peach orchards established with propagation material from nurseries of Northern Italy. Molecular studies showed that isolates belonged to the Marcus strain of PPV. It is noted that this is the first detection of sharka in peach and of PPV-M in Puglia (Palmisano et al., 2009).
- Host plants
Studies carried out in Brazil have showed that Citrus leprosis virus (EPPO A1 List) can infect Glycosmis pentaphylla, a rutaceous shrub native to tropical Asia. G. pentaphylla is grown for its edible fruits in gardens (Freitas-Astúa et al., 2009).
During studies carried out in autumn 2006 in California (US) on potential host plants, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder (Crinivirus – EPPO A2 List) was detected in Medicago sativa (lucerne), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), as well as in several weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Bassia hyssopifolia, Chenopodium album, Malva neglecta, Physalis wrightii, Sida hederacea, Sisymbrium irio, Sonchus sp., Solanum elaeagnifolium). In the field, only P. vulgaris, S. hederacea, and P. wrightii showed symptoms. Although the main hosts of CYSDV are predominantly Cucurbitaceae, more studies are needed on the disease epidemiology because other plants can serve as reservoirs for the virus (Wintermantel et al., 2009).
Spiroplasma citri (EU Annexes) causes stubborn disease in citrus and has also been found associated with brittle root in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). In the USA, S. citri has been associated recently with the carrot purple leaf disease. This disease was first reported in 2006 in the state of Washington, and then in 2008 in California. In the USA, the primary vector of S. citri is Circulifer tenellus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae – EU Annexes). Recent studies have confirmed that carrot (Daucus carota) is a host plant of S. citri, but that it is not a preferred host of C. tenellus (Mello et al., 2009).
Tobacco ringspot virus (Nepovirus, TRSV – EPPO A2 List) has been detected on two trees of Sophora microphylla (Fabaceae) in New Zealand. Leaves of affected trees showed mosaic symptoms. This is the first time that TRSV is detected in this ornamental tree species (Ward et al., 2009).
- New pest
A new root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne silvestris n.sp., has recently been described. This new species was infecting roots of European holly (Ilex aquifolium) growing in a forest in Northern Spain (province of Soria, Castilla y León). High infection rates were observed and some affected trees showed decline and reduced growth (Castillo et al., 2009).
Castillo P, Vovlas N, Troccoli A, Liébanas G, Palomares Rius JE, Landa BB (2009) A new root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne silvestris n.sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), parasitizing European holly in northern Spain. Plant Pathology 58(4), 606-619.
Damayanti TA, Naidu RA (2009) Identification of Peanut bud necrosis virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in Indonesia for the first time. Plant Pathology 58(4), p 782.
de León L, Rodríguez A, Llop P, López MM, Siverio F (2009) Comparative study of genetic diversity of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates from the Canary Islands by RAPD-PCR, BOX-PCR and AFLP. Plant Pathology 58(5), 862-871.
Feng J, Schuenzel EL, Li J, Schaad NW (2009) Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Phytopathology 99(8), 913-920.
Freitas-Astúa J, Fadel AL, Antonioli-Luizon R, Bastianel M, Novelli VM, Kitajima EW, Machado MA (2009) The remote citroid fruit tree Glycosmis pentaphylla is a host of Citrus leprosis virus C and exhibits novel leprosis symptoms. Journal of Plant Pathology 91(2), p 499.
Gajardo A, Fiore N, Prodan S, Paltrinieri S, Botti S, Pino AM, Zamorano A, Montealegre J, Bertaccini A (2009) Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows disease in Chile. Plant Disease 93(8), 789-796.
Lis B (2009) [Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) - a bug species new to the Polish fauna]. Opole Scientific Society Nature Journal no. 42, 119-122 (in Polish).
Mello AFS, Wayadande AC, Yokomi RK, Fletcher J (2009) Transmission of different isolates of Spiroplasma citri to carrot and citrus by Circulifer tenellus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 102(4), 1417-1422.
Milonas PC, Kozár F, Kontodimas DC (2009) List of scale insects of Greece. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect (Oeiras, PT, 2007-09-24/27), 143-147.
Muntun S (2009) Corythuca ciliata, a new Platanus pest in Turkey. Phytoparasitica 37(1), 65-66.
Palmisano F, Minafra A, Digiaro M, Percoco A, Elbeaino T, Boscia D (2009) First outbreaks of the Marcus strain of Plum pox virus in Apulia. Journal of Plant Pathology 91(4, Sup.), S4.77.
Reddy GPV, Muniappan R, Cruz ZT, Naz F, Bamba JP, Tenorio J (2009) Present status of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Mariana Islands and its control by two fortuitously introduced natural enemies. Journal of Economic Entomology 102(4), 1431-1439.
Salehi M, Izadpanah K, Taghavi SM, Rahimian H (2008) Characterization of a phytoplasma associated with pear decline in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 156(7-8), 493-495.
Sánchez I, Burckhardt D (2009) First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama, 1908) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) for the Iberian Peninsula. Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa no. 45, 525-526.
Sánchez-García I, Reina Belinchón I, Hurtado Hernández A (2009) [First reports of the eucalyptus weevil (Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal, 1833) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its parasitoid Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Myrmaridae) in south western areas of the Iberian Peninsula]. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 35(3), 419-422 (in Spanish).
Vadamalai G, Perera AAFLK, Hanold D, Rezaian MA, Randles JW (2009) Detection of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid sequences in oil and coconut palm by ribonuclease protection assay. Annals of Applied Biology 154(1), 117-125.
Vovlas C, de Stradis A, Parrella G (2009) Colombian datura virus in Brugmansia spp. in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 91(4, Sup.), S4.93.
Ward LI, Delmiglio C, Hill CF, Clover GRG (2009) First report of Tobacco ringspot virus on Sophora microphylla, a native tree of New Zealand. Plant Pathology 58(4), p 784.
Wintermantel WM, Hladky LL, Cortez AA, Natwick ET (2009) A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops. Plant Disease 93(7), 685-690.
Zanda A, Linnaldeddu BT, Scanu B, Franceschini A (2009) Occurrence and diversity of vegetative compatibility types of Cryphonectria parasitica in Sardinian chestnut stands. Journal of Plant Pathology 91(4, Sup.), S4.95
Fera (GB) Blueberry gall midge found in England (2009-08-06). http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/plants/plantHealth/pestsDiseases/documents/blueberryGallMidge.pdf