Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae and X. campestris pv. oryzicola in West Africa
Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (EPPO Al organism) and X. campestris pv. oryzicola (EPPO Al organism) are more prevalent and severe in the Sahelian than in the forest zone of West Africa and are rarely found in the more humid zone of West Africa. Losses, due to the pathogens, were ranging from 2.7 % to 41 % in grain yield and are, in the case of X. campestris pv. oryzae, aggravated by high dosages of nitrogen.
Awoderv, V.A. ; Bangura, N. ; John, V.T. (1991) Incidence, distribution and severity of bacterial diseases on rice in West Africa. Tropical Pest Management 37, 113-117