New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Bulgaria, Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in June 2015 on Ulmus minor in the Western Balkan range on 5 sites. The insect was then also found in Sofia. Only low levels of damage were observed in Bulgaria (Doychev, 2015). Present, first found in 2015.
Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in Zimbabwe. The disease symptoms were first observed on bulb onion crops during surveys conducted in November 2014 in 2 farms in Harare. Laboratory tests then confirmed the presence of the virus (Karavina et al., 2016). Present, first found in 2014 on onion crops near Harare.
Basil downy mildew caused by Peronospora belbahrii is reported for the first time from China. The disease was observed in December 2014 on basil crops in Sanya city (Hainan province). It is estimated that the disease affected almost 40% of the plants over an area of 70 km² (Kong et al., 2015). Present, first found in 2014 in Hainan province.
In South Africa, Tomato torrado virus (Torradovirus, ToTV - formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in 2015 in tunnel and field-cultivated tomato crops in the Limpopo province. The virus was also detected in weeds (Datura stramonium) harbouring large whitefly populations and growing along rows of tomato crops (Moodley et al., 2016). Present, first found in 2015 in the Limpopo province.
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (EPPO A2 List) occurs in the Republic of Korea. In April 2014, leaf spot symptoms were observed on seedlings of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) in a commercial greenhouse in Jinju. In this greenhouse, disease incidence reached 35%. Laboratory and pathogenicity tests confirmed the identity of the bacterium (Myung et al., 2015). Present, no details.
In the Republic of Korea, 224 grapevine leaf samples were collected in May 2014 from the major grape-growing areas of Gimcheon, Yeongdong, Okcheon, Cheonan, and Songsan and tested by RT-PCR for several grapevine viruses. Results revealed the presence of Blueberry leaf mottle virus (Nepovirus, BLMoV – EPPO A2 List) which could be detected in leaves showing yellowing and mottling symptoms. Results for BLMoV were as follows: Gimcheon (61.0%), Yeongdong (51.1%), Okcheon (70.0%), Cheonan (47.7%), and Songsan (16.3%). This is the first time that BLMoV is reported from the Republic of Korea and Asia (Kwak et al., 2016).
- Detailed records
Until recently, Heterodera glycines (EPPO A2 List) was restricted to the two main soybean production areas in China, in the northeast and the Yellow River valley. However, it now appears that this nematode is spreading into Southern and Western China. During surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013, H. glycines was detected in samples from Wuming (Guangxi province), Puding (Guizhou province), and Anfu (Jiangxi province). During other surveys conducted from 2010 to 2014 in the northern part of China, H. glycines was also found in the province of Gansu and the autonomous region of Ningxia. Finally, its presence has been reported in Xinjiang (Peng et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2015).
During entomological surveys carried out in Sicilia (Italy), the presence of Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A2 List - now considered to be a complex of species) was observed on Eucalyptus globulus in Piedimonte Etneo (Catania province). It is noted that G. scutellatus was first found in Liguria in the 1970s and then in Lazio. In 2012, it was found in Montecristo Island, in the Tuscan Archipelago, and further surveys confirmed its presence in several localities of Toscana. Finally, it is noted that for the moment, this weevil does not seem to be a major threat for Sicilian eucalyptus trees, as no severe damage has been observed in other Italian regions (Mazza et al., 2015).
- New pests
In April 2015, unusual symptoms were observed in a greenhouse tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum cv. ‘Candela’) in Jordan. Diseased plants showed mild foliar symptoms at the end of the season but strong brown rugose symptoms on fruits that greatly affected the market value of the crop. Disease incidence was close to 100%. The presence of a new tobamovirus, tentatively called Tomato brown rugose fruit virus, was detected in affected tomato plants (Salem et al., 2015).
- New host plants
In 2012, the presence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List) was detected on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) during a survey carried out in breeding plots in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), India. Affected plants showed severe leaf curling. The presence of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) was also noticed on poppy plants (Srivastava et al., 2016).
Doychev D (2015) First record of the invasive elm sawfly Aproceros leucopoda Takeuchi (Hymenoptera: Argidae) in Bulgaria. Silva Balcanica 16(1), 108-112.
Karavina C, Ibaba JD, Gubba A (2016) First report of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Zimbabwe. Plant Disease 100(1), p 235.
Kong XY, Wang S, Wan SL, Xiao CL, Luo F, Liu Y (2015) First report of downy mildew on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in China. Plant Disease 99(11), p 1642.
Kwak HR, Yoon JS, Shin JC, Seo JK, Kim M, Lee JK, Lee KS, Kim CS, Choi HS, Kim JS (2016) First report of Blueberry leaf mottle virus on grapevine in Korea. Plant Disease 100(1), p 232.
Mazza G, Inghilesi AF, Tricarico E, Montagna M, Longo S, Roversi PF (2015) First report of Gonipterus scutellatus complex (Coleoptera Curculionidae) in Sicily (Italy). Redia 98, 149-150. [Link]
Moodley V, Gubba A, Mafongoya PL (2016) First report of Tomato torrado virus on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Africa. Plant Disease 100(1), p 231.
Myung IS, Yoon MJ, Lee JY, Kim YS, Kwon JH, Lee YK, Shim HS (2015) Bacterial spot of hot pepper, caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, a new disease in Korea. Plant Disease 99(11), p 1640.
Peng DL, Peng H, Wu DQ, Huang WK, Ye WX, Cui JK (2016) First report of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) on soybean from Gansu and Ningxia China. Plant Disease 100(1), p 229.
Salem N, Mansour A, Ciuffo M, Falk BW, Turina M (2016) A new tobamovirus infecting tomato crops in Jordan. Archives of Virology 161(2), 503-506.
Srivastava A, Lumar S, Jaidi M, Raj SK, Shukla SK (2016) First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) in India. Plant Disease 100(1), p 232.
Wang D, Duan YX, Wang YY, Zhu XF, chen LJ, Liu XY, Chen JS (2015) First report of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, on soybean from Guangxi, Guizhou, and Jiangxi Provinces, China. Plant Disease 99(6), p 893.