New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Laos where it is considered to be a major pest of cucumber (Cucumis sativa), melon (Cucurbita melo) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops in both the dry and wet seasons (Anonymous, 2014). Present, no details.
In Montenegro, the first specimens of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO A2 List) were trapped in October 2013 in several localities along the sea coast (Lastva Grbaljska, Đenovići, Baošići, Kumbor and Herceg Novi). Further surveys showed that the pest was present all along the coastal area from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, as well as around the city of Podgorica (Radonjić and Hrnčić, 2014). Present, restricted distribution.
In Syria, Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in June 2015 during a survey carried out in the province of Lattakia (Abo Kaf and Mohammed, 2015). Present, restricted distribution.
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Zimbabwe where it has been shown to cause up to 40 % damage in faba bean (Vicia faba) crops (Musundire et al., 2011). Present, no details.
Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Bangladesh. The identity of the pest has been confirmed by molecular tests. During a survey carried out from October 2008 to September 2011, L. sativae was found infesting many vegetable crops across the country (Bhuiya et al., 2011). Present, widespread.
Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Greece. It was detected on samples (infected fruit or blossoms) collected in 2012 from apricot, cherry and plum orchards in the regions of Imathia and Larissa (Papavasileiou et al., 2015). Present, restricted distribution.
Monilia polystroma is reported for the first time from Slovenia. It was found during a survey for brown rot pathogens conducted in pome and stone fruit orchards from 2010 to 2013. M. polystroma was detected in symptomatic peaches (Prunus persica) which had been collected in August 2011 in an orchard located in Goriška, western Slovenia (Munda, 2015). Present, restricted distribution.
Plasmopara halstedii (EU Annexes) occurs in Myanmar (IPPC, 2015). Present, no details.
Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Kenya. It was found in low numbers in the areas of Kirinyaga and Loitokitok during surveys carried out from December 2012 to December 2013 in the main tomato-growing areas (Macharia et al., 2015). Present, restricted distribution.
In Benin, Tetranychus evansi (EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2008 causing serious damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops in the area of Sèmè-Podji. Since then, frequent outbreaks have been observed in Southern Benin on Solanaceae and other leafy vegetables, such as: Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae - bitter leaf). During a survey conducted in January 2013 in the three major vegetable-growing areas in Southern Benin (Sèmè-Kpodji, Grand-Popo and Pahou), T. evansi was the only mite observed. Production losses were estimated at 65% for S. macrocarpon, 56% for S. lycopersicum and 25% for A. cruentus (Azandémè-Hounmalon et al., 2015). Present, restricted distribution (Southern Benin).
Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A1 List) occurs in Laos where it is considered to be a major pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops during the dry and wet seasons (Anonymous, 2014). Present, no details.
Thrips setosus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO Alert List) occurs in Indonesia. It was found in Capsicum annuum crops in the region of Jambi (Sumatra) (Johari, 2015). Present, no details.
In Georgia, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae - EPPO A2 List) was first found 2011 in the village of Khorga, (near Khobi, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region) in the Western part of the country (Kakhadze et al., 2014). Present, first found in 2011.
Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) occurs in Bahamas, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guyana, Panama, Suriname, Venezuela (Pogue, 2002). Present, no details.
In Laos, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus – EPPO A2 List) and Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List) are both considered to be major diseases of tomato crops during the wet season (Anonymous, 2014). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
In September 2015, the presence of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 List) was detected on the Amami Oshima Island (Kagoshima Prefecture - Kyushu) in Japan. Between 2015-09-01 and 2015-10-31, 531 adult flies were trapped. Eradication measures are being implemented (IPPC, 2015).
Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Syria. During a survey conducted in 2007 and 2008, TSWV was detected in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum sp.) samples collected from 4 governorates (Dara’a, Damascus, Hama and Idleb) (Ismaeil et al., 2015).
In June 2013, symptoms of bacterial blight were observed on leaves of Anthurium crystallinum plants in a commercial greenhouse in Guangzhou (Guangdong province), China. Laboratory tests confirmed the presence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (EPPO A2 List) in symptomatic samples. During studies conducted in 2014, the disease was found in 7 out of the 10 greenhouses investigated, with an incidence reaching 60% in one greenhouse. As this is the first time that X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae is found on A. crystallinum in China, it is noted that further surveys are needed to determine the impact of the disease on this specific host plant in China (Liu and Zhou, 2015).
During surveys carried out in commercial vineyards in Yakima Valley, Washington state (US) in 2013 and 2014, severe leaf deformation and general decline were observed on grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Grenache’). Laboratory analysis (ELISA, RT-PCR, sequencing) confirmed the presence of Tobacco ringspot virus (Nepovirus, TRSV – EPPO A2 List) in symptomatic samples. This is the first time that TRSV is detected on grapevine in Washington state (Walker et al., 2015).
In 2007, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (Pospiviroid, TCDVd) was detected on Petunia samples collected from 5 nurseries in Scotland (EPPO RS 2008/006). All infected lots were destroyed. In October 2015, the NPPO of the United Kingdom officially declared that TCDVd has been eradicated from its territory (IPPC, 2015).
In the United Kingdom, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae - EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in a packing station in Essex in 2009. Other outbreaks were then reported in tomato crops (EPPO RS 2009/152 and RS 2011/075) and eradication measures were implemented. In October 2015, the NPPO of the United Kingdom officially declared that T. absoluta has been eradicated from its territory (IPPC, 2015).
Two real-time PCR assays have been developed in Switzerland for the detection and identification of Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) (Kiewnick et al., 2015).
A new DNA extraction method and a new quantitative real-time-PCR have been developed for the detection and identification of Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List). In addition, a test performance study, involving 7 laboratories has been conducted to validate the developed protocols, in accordance with the EPPO Standard PM7/98. This comparison study demonstrated the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the developed methods (Braun-Kiewnick et al., 2016).
Abo Kaf N, Mohammed E (2015) First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) and its natural enemies on eucalyptus trees in the province of Lattakia, Syria. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter 66, p 5.
Anonymous (2014) Country Strategy Paper Lao PDR/ Pesticide Risk Reduction “IPM Component”/Towards a non-toxic environment in South East Asia – Phase I (GCP/RAS/229/SWE). Extension period: July 2010-June 2013. FAO, Asian Food & Agriculture Cooperation Initiative, 17 pp.
Azandémè-Hounmalon GY, Affognon HD, Assogba Komlan F, Tamó M, Fiaboe KKM, Kreiter S, Martin T (2015) Farmers’ control practices against the invasive red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard in Benin. Crop Protection 76, 53-58.
Bhuiya BA, Amin S, Mazumdar S (2011) First report of vegetable leaf miner Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) through DNA barcoding from Bangladesh. Journal of Taxonomy and Biodiversity 5, 15-17.
Braun-Kiewnick A, Viaene N, Folcher L, Ollivier F, Anthoine G, Niere B, Sapp M, van de Vossenberg B, Toktay H, Kiewnick S (2016) Assessment of a new qPCR tool for the detection and identification of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii by an international test performance study. European Journal of Plant Pathology 144(1), 97-108.
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Myanmar (2015-10-03) Banana, chilli, citrus, corn, crucifer, cut flower, durian, mango, oil seed crops, potato, pulses, rice, rodent, stored pest, tomato, weed. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/myanmar/pestreports/
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – United Kingdom (GBR-02/3 2015-10-30) Columnea latent viroid. https://www.ippc.int/index.php
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – United Kingdom (GBR-17/3 2015-10-30) Tuta absoluta. https://www.ippc.int/index.php
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Japan (JPN-03/6 2015-11-06) Detection of Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Oriental fruit flies) in Amami Oshima Island, Japan. https://www.ippc.int/index.php
Ismaeil F, Haj Kassem AA, Al-Chaabi S, Abdulkader A, Alkhala M (2015) Serological and molecular characterization of Syrian Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 54(1), 28-34.
Johari A (2015) The diversity of Thrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in chili plantation (Capsicum annuum L.) in the region of Jambi. Indian Journal of Scientific Research and Technology 3(1), 65-70.
Kakhadze M, Chkhubianishvili T, Latamze M, Chubinishvili M, Skhirtladze R, Rijamadze I, Nazarashvili N (2014) Perspectives of biological control to the South American tomato moth. Proceedings of the VII Congress on Plant Protection (Zlatibor, RS, 2014-11-24/28), 187-188.
Kiewnick S, Frey JE, Braun-Kiewnick A (2015) Development and validation of LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection and identification of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii in complex DNA backgrounds. Phytopathology 105(9), 1245-1249.
Liu QG, Zhou XY (2015) First report of bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae on Anthurium crystallinum in China. Plant Disease 99(9), 1268-1269.
Macharia I, Backhouse D, Skilton R, Ateka E, Wu SB, Njahira M, Maina S, Harvey J (2015) Diversity of Thrips species and vectors of Tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato production systems in Kenya. Journal of Economic Entomology 108(1), 20-28.
Munda A (2015) First report of brown rot on peach caused by Monilia polystroma in Slovenia. Plant Disease 99(9), p 1281.
Musundire R, Chabi-Olaye A, Löhr B Krüger K (2011) Diversity of Agromyzidae and associated hymenopteran parasitoid species in the Afrotropical region: implications for biological control. BioControl 56(1), 1-9.
Papavasileiou A, Karaoglanidis GS, Michailides TJ (2015) Intraspecific diversity of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa populations from blossoms and fruit of different hosts in Greece. Plant Disease 99(10), 1353-1359.
Pogue MG (2002) A world revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 43, 1–202.
Radonjić S, Hrnčić S (2014) The spotted-wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) a new pest species in Montenegro. Proceedings of the VII Congress on Plant Protection (Zlatibor, RS, 2014-11-24/28), 293-294.
Walker L, Bagewadi B, Schultz A, Naidu RA (2015) First report of Tobacco ringspot virus associated with fanleaf disease in a Washington State vineyard. Plant Disease 99(9), p 1286.