New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
During a faunistic survey carried out in 2014, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was found in field-grown cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) near Baku, Azerbaijan (Kasatkin, 2014). Present, first found in 2014 near Baku.
Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) was first recorded in Southern Iran in 1958, and subsequently in Northern Iran in 1980. Recent studies showed that in the province of Mazandaran (Northern Iran), where the pest is now widespread, the levels of genetic diversity of its populations were very low. These results supported the hypothesis that C. capitata is of recent introduction in this province (Rajabiyan et al., 2015). In another paper, the presence of C. capitata is recorded on citrus in Mazandaran, Golestan, Fars, and Kermanshah provinces (Cheraghian, 2012). Present, restricted distribution.
In Saudi Arabia, Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus was detected for the first time in samples of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) which had been collected in March 2014 in 2 greenhouses in the Al-Kharj area, province of Riyadh. Affected plants showed interveinal chlorotic spots on lower leaves and were heavily infested by Bemisia tabaci biotype B. Further surveys are needed to delimit the extent of the disease in the country and identify its host plants. Present, first found in 2014 in glasshouse cucumbers in the province of Riyadh (Al-Saleh et al., 2015).
- Detailed records
In Russia, the first outbreaks of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) were recorded in 1994 near the cities of Krasnodar and Novorossiysk (Krasnodar Krai, Southern Russia). In 2009-2010, the pest was again found in Krasnodar Krai near the city of Anapa. In autumn 2014, C. capitata was detected in a private garden in Rostov-on-Don (Rostov oblast, Southern Russia). Damage was observed on peaches and pears (Prunus persica, Pyrus communis). The number of larvae observed in collected fruit ranged from 8 to 15 per fruit. Phytosanitary measures were taken to eradicate the pest and prevent any further spread (Kasatkin and Poushkova, 2014). Present, few occurrences, under eradication.
In March 2014, chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants showing stunted growth and yellowing leaves were observed in a commercial field in Yuanmou county, Yunnan province, China. Examination of their root systems revealed the presence of heavily galled and rotting roots similar to damage caused by root-knot nematodes. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) in symptomatic plants. This is the first time that M. enterolobii is reported from Yunnan province and on hot pepper (Wang et al., 2015).
Five isolates of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) were collected from from different regions of Russia (Moscow, Samara and Volgograd) on sweet and sour cherry trees (Prunus avium – 1 isolate; P. cerasus – 4) showing foliar symptoms. These isolates were characterized as PPV-C. This study confirms the occurrence of natural infections by PPV-C on sweet and sour cherry in Central and Southern Russia (Glasa et al., 2014).
In the USA, by establishing a volunteer-based monitoring network staffed by county extension agents, agricultural research station personnel, growers, and entomological researchers, the presence of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) was confirmed in Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Vermont (Burrack et al., 2012).
A new multiplex real-time PCR test has been developed in the USA for the detection of Puccinia horiana (EPPO A2 List) in chrysanthemum plants. This test can also distinguish between P. horiana and P. chrysanthemi (Demers et al., 2015).
- New host plants
In August 2014, the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List) was detected in symptomatic plants of Phaseolus vulgaris collected from Stara Pazova (Vojvodina) in Serbia. Affected plants showed yellowing and downward rolling of the leaves (Mitrović et al., 2015).
During summers 2012-2013 and 2014, unusual symptoms were observed at low prevalence in several plantations of Dianthus barbatus near Pančevo, Serbia. Affected plants showed leaf reddening, proliferation, flower bud deficiency and abnormal shoot production. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List) in symptomatic plants (Josić et al., 2015).
Al-Saleh MA, Al-Shahwan IM, Amer MA, Shakeel MT, Abdalla OA, Orfanidou CG, Katis NI (2015) First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in cucumber in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease 99(5), p 734.
Burrack HJ, Smith JP, Pfeiffer DG, Koeher G, Laforest J (2012) Using volunteer-based networks to track Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) an invasive pest of fruit crops. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 4(3) doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM12012
Cheraghian A (2012) Introduction of fruits flies Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Dacus and Rhagoletis from Iran. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 7(2), p 117.
Demers JE, Crouch JA, Castlebury LA (2015) A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Puccinia horiana and P. chrysanthemi on chrysanthemum. Plant Disease 99(2), 195-200.
Glasa M, Shneyder Y, Predajna L, Zhivaeva T, Prikhodko Y (2014) Characterization of Russian Plum pox virus isolates provides further evidence of low molecular heterogeneity within the PPV-C strain. Journal of Plant Pathology 96(3), 697-601.
Josić D, Starović M, Kojić S, Pivić R, Stanojković-Sebić, Zdravković M, Pavlović S (2015) Dianthus barbatus – a new host of Stolbur phytoplasma in Serbia. Plant Disease 99(2), p 283.
Kasatkin DG (2014) Entomological expedition to Iran and Azerbaijan. Plant Health Research and Practice 4(10), 8-9.
Kasatkin DG, Poushkova SV (2014) New report of Mediterranean fruit fly in Russia. Plant Health Research and Practice 4(10), p 5.
Mitrović M, Cvrković T, Jović J, Krstić O, Jakovljević M, Kosovac A, Toševski I (2015) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ infecting garden bean Phaseolus vulgaris in Serbia. Plant Disease 99(4), p 551.
Rajabiyan M, Shayanmehr M, Mohammadi Sharif M (2015) The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Iran: genetic diversity and comparison with other countries. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research 47(1), 20-25.
Wang Y, Wang XQ, Xie Y, Dong Y, Hu XQ, Yang ZX (2015) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on hot pepper in China. Plant Disease 99(4), p 557.