Quarantine pests in Ukraine
Following the publication of the Ukrainian quarantine list (RS 94/214), an article by Litvinov et al. provides a variety of details on quarantine pests in Ukraine.
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus: introduced into Zakarpat'e region in 1952, the pest has spread every year since, and is now present in 16 of the 25 regions of Ukraine. Phytosanitary measures included inspection and methyl bromide fumigation of imported material, surveillance in quarantine nurseries, production of healthy planting material and budwood in registered nurseries which must be at least 3 km from any outbreak, surveillance of newly planted orchards for 3-5 years.
Pseudococcus comstocki: first recorded in Ukraine in 1973. This polyphagous pest mostly damages citrus, apple, pear, pomegranate, peach, grapevine and mulberry. Heavy infestation of peach can cause 50 % losses of fruit yield. Measures like those for Q. perniciosus are taken.
Cydia molesta: first found in Ukraine in Zakarpat'e region in 1966. It spread to two regions by 1970, and to 10 at present. Specially damaging to peach, quince and pear. Measures are taken as for the two previous species.
Hyphantria cunea: first found in Ukraine in Zakarpat'e region in 1952, and has now spread to 8 regions. This polyphagous pest attacks in practice many rosaceous fruit trees. Since it spreads naturally, phytosanitary measures aim at containment, by surveillance of a 3-5 km zone around outbreaks (and eradication of any foci found), and regulated use of fruits from infested areas.
Plum pox potyvirus: first found in Ukraine in 1967, now in 8 regions. It is prohibited to move planting material of hosts out of infested zones, or to take budwood from non-tested mother trees. Nurseries must be isolated by at least 1 km from infested orchards.
It should also be noted that besides Lists 1 and 2 of quarantine pests, a third group of pests has been categorized as 'potentially dangerous and requiring further study'. These include 29 insects (of which Aonidiella aurantii, Aleurocanthus woglumi and Frankliniella occidentalis) and 26 pathogens (of which Xylella fastidiosa, peach latent mosaic viroid, American plum line pattern ilarvirus).
Litvinov, P.I.; Titova, L.G.; Palagina, O.V.; Kul'minskaya, L.A. (1994) Quarantine pests and diseases of fruit crops in Ukraine.
Zashchita Rastenii, no. 7, 30-32.