Citrus pests in Vietnam
Surveys have been carried out in 1990-08 and 1991-03 in order to identify important citrus pests and diseases in Vietnam. One of the most serious problems is caused by citrus greening bacterium and its vector Diaphorina citri (both EPPO A1 quarantine pests), especially in Northern Vietnam in orchards and in some nurseries. However, during those two surveys, the disease and its vector were not observed in the region near Ho Chin Minh City (Southern Vietnam). Damage due to citrus tristeza closterovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) and exocortis have been found, and the author assumed that citrus tatter leaf capillovirus (potential EPPO A1 pest) is also probably present. Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) is frequently severe on sweet oranges in northern orchards but is less serious in the south. Other important diseases reported are: Phytophthora citrophthora, Meliola citricola and Elsinoe fawcetti (EU Annex II/A1).
The vector of citrus tristeza, Toxoptera citricidus (EPPO A1 quarantine pest), is widespread in Vietnam but its direct damage is limited. Infestations of Phyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner) are generally severe in many orchards and nurseries and this pest is the main target of insecticide treatments. In Northern Vietnam, ripening fruits are often attacked by Bactrocera dorsalis (EPPO A1 quarantine pest). Other important pests reported are: Citripestis sagittiferella (citrus moth borer), Nadezhdiella cantori (longhorn beetle), Eudocima (Othreis) spp. (fruit piercing moth), Panonychus citri (red spider mite). Aleurocanthus woglumi (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) and Anoplophora chinensis (potential EPPO A1 quarantine pest) have also been found in Vietnam.
These are the first specific reports known to the EPPO Secretariat of Citrus greening, Toxoptera citricidus and Bactrocera dorsalis in Vietnam.
Whittle, A.M. (1992) Diseases and pests of citrus in Viet Nam.
FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(3), 75-81.