EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 02 - 2015 Num. article: 2015/039

C-S-R strategies of invasive plants in Croatia

A recent study evaluated the occurrence of invasive plant species in three biogeographical regions (Alpine, Continental and Mediterranean) in Croatia and in addition set out to subscribe C-S-R strategies to individual species. Under the C-S-R theory, originally set out in Grimes (1977) plants can be grouped into three main strategies, C- competitors, S-stress tolerators and R ruderals. Ten C-S-R plant types were recorded among invasive plants in Croatia with C-R strategists being the most common. In the Mediterranean region of Croatia, R strategists are more frequently found amoung IAPs and this may be due to intensive human induced habitat modification in this region compared to Alpine and Continental regions.


Vuković N, Miletić M, Milović M, Jelaska S D (2014) Grime’s CSR strategies of the invasive plants in Croatia. Periodicum Biologorum 116, 323-329.

Grime JP (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. American Naturalist 111(982), 1169-1194.