EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 02 - 2015 Num. article: 2015/037

Current situation of Solanum elaeagnifolium invasion in Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria

Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae, EPPO A2 List), is a perennial species native to Mexico and south-west USA. The species has a wide invasive range including Australia, the Americas (outside Mexico and SW USA), Africa, Asia and 15 countries in the EPPO region.

The FAO funded project ‘Management of the invasive plant Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Near East’ set out to develop action plans and capacity building to help mitigate the spread and impact of this species within the participating countries. Invaded habitats include a variety of land usages, but in particular S. elaeagnifolium invades cultivated land. S. elaeagnifolium was introduced into Syria in 1967 and Iraq and Jordan in 1970. New country records were recorded for this species with the most recent being Lebanon in 2012. The plant invades a variety of cropping systems including wheat, maize, olive groves, orchards and vegetable plantations. Impacts include competition with crop plants and associated difficulties when harvesting crops, blocking irrigation channels and loss of biodiversity. Under the FAO funded project, management measures in the region have focused on (1) prevention – including drafting of legislation to set a framework for (2) control and mitigation of this invasive alien plant.


Bouhache M, Gbhounou G (2014) Current situation of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Invasion in Near-East countries (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria). Revue Marocaine de Protection des Plantes 6, 29-36.