New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae – EPPO A1 List) occurs in Colombia. It was first found in 2007 and has since been reported from the states of Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Caldas, Cauca, Cesar, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Norte de Santander, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima and Valle del Cauca (Kondo and Simbaqueba, 2014). Present, widespread.
In Puerto Rico, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in September 2014. During an official survey, a single adult male moth was caught in a pheromone trap which was located in a bean field in San Germán (NAPPO, 2014). Present, only in some areas.
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Colombia. It was originally reported from the states of Atlántico, Cesar, Guajira and Magdalena in 2008, but studies of specimens in collections have indicated that it was probably introduced in 2003. The mealybug was also found on Old Providence Island in 2010 and the island of San Andrea in 2012. It is thought to have been introduced on these islands via imports of infested ornamental plants from continental Colombia (Kondo and Simbaqueba, 2014). Present, only in some areas.
Monilia polystroma is reported for the first time in Italy. The fungus was detected during a survey conducted in 2013 on stored peaches (Prunus persica - various cultivars) in Emilia-Romagna and Sardinia. Affected fruit presented symptoms of brown rot. Further studies are necessary to determine the geographical distribution, prevalence, and economic importance of this pathogen in Italy (Martini et al., 2014). Present, no details.
In May 2013, symptoms of bacterial leaf streak were observed on rice plants at the panicle emergence stage in fields at Musenyi, Gihanga (both localities in Bubanza province) and Rugombo (Cibitoke province), in Burundi. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (EPPO A1 List) in diseased rice plants. This is the first time that this bacterium is recorded in Burundi and surveys will be conducted to determine the extent of the disease (Afolabi et al., 2014). Present, only in some areas.
In Uruguay, Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time. ToCV was detected during a survey carried out in 2012/2013 in 2 major-tomato producing regions (Salto and Canelones). Tomato infectious chlorosis virus was not detected during this survey (Arruabarrena et al., 2014). Present, only in some areas.
- Detailed records
Dothistroma pini, causing red band needle blight, has been detected in Indiana, North Dakota and South Dakota (US). This pathogen has also been found in pine species which were not previously recorded as host plants: i.e. Pinus albicaudis, P. cembra, P. flexilis, and P. ponderosa (Barnes et al., 2014).
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A2 List) continues to spread in Brazil. After a first record in the state of Roraima in 2010, the pest was also found in the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia. In Espírito Santo, it was first observed in May 2012 in commercial fields of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in the municipality of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim. Other specimens were then found on the same site on more plants (Abelmoschus esculentus, Solanum americanum and an unidentified weed). In 2013, M. hirsutus was detected in another municipality (Linhares) in Espirito Santo and for the first time in the state of Bahia in the municipality of Mucuri on cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Culik et al., 2014; Internet, 2014).
In France, an outbreak of Melampsora medusae (EPPO A2 List) was detected in December 2013 on several clones of poplar (Populus spp.) grown in a nursery in the department of Gers (Aquitaine region). Surveys are being carried out to delimit the extent of the disease (Anon., 2014).
Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) occurs in the province of Shandong, China. In 2012, severe symptoms were observed in greenhouse tomato plants in the city of Shouguang and other localities (Zhao et al., 2014).
In Hungary, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in Bács-Kiskun county, in the Southern part of the country (EPPO RS 2010/052). From 2011 to 2013, studies using pheromone and light traps showed that the pest has been spreading east- and westwards. T. absoluta was trapped in both field and glasshouse tomatoes and some specimens were also caught in potato fields. The early flight of adults (end of February/beginning of March) which has been observed in the fields suggests that T. absoluta is able to overwinter in the Carpathian Basin (Agoston ; Fazekas, 2014).
- Denied records
In 2013, the presence of Meloidogyne fallax (EPPO A2 List) was first reported in the USA (Nischwitz et al., 2013). It was detected during a survey carried out in golf courses in San Francisco county, in California. However, further surveys were conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 in golf courses in several counties of California (including San Francisco county) and did not detect the nematode. USDA-APHIS considers that M. fallax does not occur in the USA (Anonymous, 2013).
In October 2014, the government of Mexico officially announced the successful eradication of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 List) from its territory (SAGARPA, 2014).
- New host plants
In Oregon (US), zebra chip disease of potatoes (associated with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ – solanaceous haplotypes EPPO A1 List) was first reported in 2011. The perennial weed, Solanum dulcamara, is also a host plant for the disease vector, Bactericera cockerelli. Recent studies showed that several S. dulcamara plants collected from three different locations in Oregon were naturally infected by ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’. It is noted that further studies are needed to identify perennial host plants of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ which are playing a role in the disease epidemiology, because this might have consequences on the disease management strategy (Murphy et al., 2014).
In China, Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) has been found on jujube (Ziziphus jububa) in Hainan. Affected trees showed stunting, wilting and general decline. They did not produce any flowers and fruit (Long et al., 2014).
Recent research has shown that Asymmetrasca decedens (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ (formerly EPPO Alert List), a phytoplasma which is associated with almond witches’ broom (Abou-Jawdah et al., 2014).
Abou‐Jawdah Y, Abdel Sater A, Jawhari M, Sobh H, Abdul‐Nour H, Bianco PA, Molino Lova M, Alma A. (2014) Asymmetrasca decedens (Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae), a natural vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’. Annals of Applied Biology 165(3), 395-403.
Afolabi O, Milan B, Amoussa R, Koebnik R, Poulin I, Szurek B, Habarugira G, Bigirimana J, Silue D (2014) First report of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causing bacterial leaf streak of rice in Burundi. Plant Disease 98(10), p 1426.
Agoston J, Fazekas I (2014) [Recent data on the distribution and biology of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) in Hungary (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]. e-Acta Naturalia Pannonica 7, 5-14 (in Hungarian).
Anonymous (2013) Exotic nematode survey. 2012 final accomplishment report. California Department of Food and Agriculture, 7 pp.
Anonymous (2014) Découverte de Melampsora medusae dans une pépinière en Aquitaine. Lettre du DSF n°49, 11-12.
Arruabarrena A, Rubio I, Gonzalez-Arcos M, Maeso D, Fonseca MEN, Boiteux IS (2014) First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting tomato crops in Uruguay. Plant Disease 98(10), 1445-1446.
Barnes I, Walla JA, Bergdahl A, Wingfield MJ (2014) Four new host and three new state records of Dothistroma needle blight caused by Dothistroma pini in the United States. Plant Disease 98(10), p 1443.
Culik MP, dos Santos Martins D, Zanuncio Jr JS, Fornazier MJ, Ventura JA, Peronti ALBG, Zanuncio JC (2013) The invasive hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its recent range expansion in Brazil. Florida Entomologist 96(2), 638-640.
- CEPLAC (Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira). Ocorrência da cochonilha rosada em cacauais da Bahia e Espírito Santo (dated 2014-01-07). http://www.ceplac.gov.br/restrito/lerNoticia.asp?id=2159
- SAGARPA. Declara SAGARPA libre de mosca del Mediterraneo al territorio mexicano (dated 2014-10-30). http://www.sagarpa.gob.mx/saladeprensa/2012/Paginas/2014B852.aspx (via PestLens).
Kondo T, Simbaqueba Cortés R (2014) Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive aphid on San Andres island and mainland Colombia, with notes on other adventive species. Insecta Mundi 0362, 1-10.
Long HB, Bai C, Peng J, Zeng FY (2014) First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii infecting jujube in China. Plant Disease 98(10), 1451-1452.
Martini C, Lantos A, di Francesco A, Guidareli M, d'Aguino S, Baraldi E (2014) First report of Asiatic brown rot caused by Monilinia polystroma on peach in Italy. Plant Disease 98(11), p 1585.
Murphy AF, Catling RA, Goyer A, Hamm PB, Rondon SI (2014) First report of natural infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) in the Columbia Basin of Eastern Oregon. Plant Disease 98(10), 1425-1426.
NAPPO Phytosanitary Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports. USA (2014-10-28) Detection of Old World bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) in Puerto Rico. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=600
Nischwitz C, Skantar A, Handoo ZA, Hult MN, Schmitt ME, McClure MA (2013) Occurrence of Meloidogyne fallax in North America, and molecular characterization of M. fallax and M. minor from U.S. golf course greens. Plant Disease 97(11), 1424-1430.
Zhao LM, Li G, Gao Y, Liu YJ, Sun GZ, Zhu XP (2014) Molecular detection and complete genome sequences of Tomato chlorosis virus isolates from infectious outbreaks in China. Journal of Phytopathology 162(10), 627-702.