Grapevine pests and diseases in France
Several papers published in Phytoma describe the phytosanitary situation of grapevine in France. The EPPO Secretariat has picked out the following information concerning quarantine pests:
- Xylophilus ampelinus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
At the beginning of the 1980s, X. ampelinus was mainly recorded in the Cognac vineyards and its incidence later decreased. However, due to the cool springs of 1993, 1994 and 1995 an increase of the disease has been observed not only in Cognac but also in Diois (Drôme) in 1994, in Gers and Pyrénées-Orientales (where the disease is endemic) in 1995. X. ampelinus has been found for the first time in Bas-Armagnac on a small focus (5 ha). In France, the main cultivars affected are: Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Clairette et Grenache. To control the disease early pruning and copper treatments are recommended, although early pruning is hampered in regions where another disease is present (Eutypa lata) which is on the contrary favoured by this cultural operation.
- Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) is not present in Alsace. The disease is limited and well contained in northern vineyards (Champagne, Bourgogne, Centre and Pays de Loire). The situation is stable in Jura and most of the Rhône-Alpes region (excepted in Bas-Vivarais). In Aquitaine, foci found in 1994 are still active and new foci have been found in Gironde, Dordogne and Landes. In Midi-Pyrénées, FD is progresing slowly. In Pyrénées-Orientales and Aude (Languedoc-Roussillon), disease incidence has noticeably increased, and in 1995 compulsory treatments against the vector, Scaphoideus titanus, were carried out on 25,000 ha.
- Bois noir and other yellows
In Bourgogne, symptoms of grapevine yellows are mainly due to grapevine bois noir phytoplasma and to a lesser extent to a third unknown agent. Two new foci of bois noir have been found in Auvergne. In the south of France (Aude, Hérault, Bas-Vivarais), grapevine flavescence dorée and bois noir are present together. In Val de Loire, symptoms of a non-identified grapevine yellows have been observed.
- Viteus vitifoliae (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
Viteus vitifoliae is considered as a secondary pest. Some gall symptoms have been reported more frequently than usual in the Bordeaux region (Entre-deux-mers), but did not lead to serious damage.
Descoin, M. (1995) Le "millésime phytosanitaire" 1995. France viticole, terre de contrastes... cette année.
Phytoma - La défense des Végétaux, n° 477, 11-14.
Descoin, M. (1995) Eutypiose et nécrose bacterienne. Casse-tête sur les bois.
Phytoma - La défense des Végétaux, n° 477, 15-16.
Descoin, M. (1995) Flavescence dorée. La guerre des Corbières.
Phytoma - La défense des Végétaux, n° 477, 26-28.