Situation of Aonidiella citrina in Turkey
In the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, studies have been carried out in order to determine the species of armoured scale which cause damage to citrus orchards which did not receive chemical treatments (in Rize, Hopa and Sarp). Population fluctuations and natural enemies were also studied, as well as the incidence of insecticidal treatments targeted at other pests. The results showed that the citrus scales present were: Aonidiella aurantii, A. citrina (EU Annex II/A1) and Chrysomphalus dictyospermi. Approximately 90;% of the scale insect population was A. citrina. Natural enemies found during this study were the following: Orius sp. Chrysopa sp., Cybocephalus sp. Scymnus sp. Chilocoris bipustulatus, Exochomus quadripustulatus (as predators); Aspiditiophagus citrinus, Prospaltella perniciosi, Aphytis sp (as parasitoids). It was also found that chemical sprays targeted at other pests have adverse effects on scales insects and their natural enemies, especially when organophosphorus compounds were used.
EPPO note: in this study, it appears that A. citrina is the dominant species. However, during a visit made in Turkey we heard that A. citrina is also present in the region of Adana (East of the Mediterranean region of Turkey) and in the Aegean region. In these regions, the dominant species is A. aurantii, as A. citrina is better controlled by chemical treatments (due to a less sheltered way of life) and has more effective natural enemies.
Bozan, I.; Yildirim, A.F. (1992) Investigations on the population fluctuations of the species of (Aonidiella aurantii Mask., Aonidiella citrina Coq. and Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Morg.) causing damage to citrus trees in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.
Zirai Mücadele Arastirma Yilligi, no. 22-23 (1987-1988), 66-67.