Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus is present in Burkina Faso
Studies have recently been carried out in Burkina Faso on the occurrence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, as no data was previously available. The crops studied were cassava (Manihot esculenta), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The results of this study provided the first evidence for the occurrence of geminiviruses in Burkina Faso. Four geminiviruses have been identified by using TAS-ELISA and monoclonal antibodies: African cassava mosaic, okra leaf curl, tobacco leaf curl and tomato yellow leaf curl geminiviruses. Tomato yellow leaf curl (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) has been found in many parts of the country and its incidence varied greatly from year to year and from one season to another. Within the dry season (main period for tomato production), the incidence of the disease was high in many tomato crops (in March) and could rise to 60 %, following a peak population of its vector Bemisia tabaci (EPPO A2 quarantine pest). The authors noted that in Burkina Faso, tomato yellow leaf curl is an economically serious disease.
Okra leaf curl geminivirus was also considered as a problem in the small area of okra grown in the dry season but not important during the main production period of okra (rainy season). The virus was also found in wild hosts, e.g. Sida acuta, which are suspected to play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease as reservoirs for the virus. African cassava mosaic geminivirus is widely distributed in Burkina Faso. However, the authors considered that as cassava is not a key crop, it does not present a such a serious problem. Tobacco leaf curl has only been reported in a few places and is not considered as a serious disease.
Konaté, G.; Barro, N.; Fargette, D.; Swanson, M.M.; Harrison, B.D. (1995) Occurrence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in crops in Burkina Faso, and their serological detection and differentiation.
Annals of applied Biology, 126(1), 121-129.