Successful biological control of Parabemisia myricae in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey
In Turkey, 70 % of citrus production is concentrated in the Çukurova region (eastern Mediterranean area). Parabemisia myricae (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) has been introduced into Turkey and was first detected in the Çukurova region in 1982. The pest was then reported in the Aegean coast and in Antalaya province. So far, all attempts to eradicate it with insecticides did not succeed. In 1986, Eretmocerus debachi, a specific parasitoid of P. myricae was introduced from California (US) and released in citrus orchards along the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Surveys have been carried out from 1988 to 1991 to monitor colonization and control efficiency of E. debachi in 14 citrus orchards (grapefruit, mandarin, sweet orange, lemon) after release in 1988. From the samples collected in these locations, only E. debachi was recovered, no other parasitoids emerged from P. myricae. In the following years, P. myricae populations were rapidly reduced from approximately 17 immature stages per leaf to less than 0.1 in all these citrus orchards. Already in 1989, it was found that E. debachi not only colonized the release sites, but spread to other citrus orchards as far as 60 km away from the release locations. The authors concluded that since the colonization of E. debachi, P. myricae is no longer a serious pest and pointed out that it is now difficult to find unparasitized pests in the Çukurova region.
Sengonca, Ç; Uygun, N.; Kersting, U.; Ulusoy, M.R. (1993) Successful colonization of Eretmocerus debachi (Hym: Aphelinidae) in the eastern Mediterranean citrus region of Turkey.
Entomophaga, 38(3), 383-390.