Situation of Bemisia tabaci in the Near East
The situation of Bemisia tabaci (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) in the Near East is described in this paper based on data obtained from an FAO questionnaire sent in 1992-11. In the Near East, it is present in: Algeria*, Bahrain*, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates. In this region resistance to plant protection products has been reported (e.g. in Sudan and Turkey, resistance to monocrotophos, dimethoate, and cypermethrin). Attack by B. tabaci is reported on tobacco from Cyprus, on potato from Cyprus, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and on cotton from Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, Sudan, Syria and Turkey. Damage on ornamentals is reported from Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran and Lebanon. Damage is also reported on soybean from Turkey. Most countries considered that the incidence of the pest is increasing, except Bahrain, Cyprus, and Libya where the situation has not evolved significantly during the last five years.
Several viruses transmitted by B. tabaci have been observed in the Near East but the main concern at present is tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) which can cause very serious damage throughout the region (though no case has been reported from Iran). Disease incidence can reach 90 % in protected and autumn-grown field tomatoes, with crop losses up to 85 %. Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus has been reported in: Bahrain*, Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya*, Malta, Saudi Arabia. Cotton leaf curl geminivirus has become a severe problem in Sudan but is now better controlled. This virus is currently spreading in Pakistan where severe losses are observed. Other viruses transmitted by B. tabaci in the Near East are: cucumber vein yellowing virus (Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon), cucumber yellows virus (Egypt, Lebanon, Israel) but some of these records are not yet sufficiently documented).
Data on other whiteflies is also given. Trialeurodes vaporariorum is widely distributed throughout the region. Dialeurodes citri is present around the Mediterranean Basin, in Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy and Turkey (reported also from Pakistan). Aleurothrixus floccosus is present in Algeria, France, Greece, Italy, Lebanon (recently found), Morocco, Portugal, Spain and Tunisia (suspected in Syria). Parabemisia myricae (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) is present in Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Italy and Turkey (suspected in Syria).
* New records according to the EPPO Secretariat.
Traboulsi, R. (1994) Bemisia tabaci: a report on its pest status with particular reference to the Near East.
FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 24 (1-2), 33-58.