Situation of nematodes of quarantine importance in the Mediterranean region
The EPPO/CIHEAM Conference on Plant Nematology in the Mediterranean Region took place in Valenzano (IT), in 1993-03-30/04-01. Many papers were presented and speakers gave interesting and new information, in particular on several nematodes of quarantine importance. These papers have been published in the EPPO Bulletin 24(2), June 1994.
Ivezic et al. presented the situation in Croatia. Investigations have been carried out in Croatia since 1978, on many crops (crops and glasshouse crops, forests) and weeds, and a list of nematode species found during this survey appears in their paper (63 genera and 81 species). In Croatia the main problems are caused by Pratylenchus species, in many crops (mostly soybean and maize), Xiphinema species in vineyards, and Heterodera schachtii in surgar beet. Only a few samples of severe attacks of Ditylenchus dipsaci (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) have been found on onion.
Concerning Ditylenchus dipsaci on food legumes, Greco and Di Vito noted that this pest is common in the Mediterranean countries. During a survey on food legumes, it has been found that D. dipsaci could cause severe decline of broad bean, pea and lentil during wet seasons. This nematode has been found on broad bean in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and is also reported in Syria. In Italy, D. dipsaci has been observed on this crop but is not associated with decline.
The situation in Albania was presented by Dr Jovani. Ditylenchus dipsaci is one of the most serious plant parasitic nematodes, especially in warm regions of Albania. Serious damage has been observed on vegetable crops (onion, garlic, leek). The pest also attacks potatoes, sugar beet and tobacco. In some regions like the Korca district, garlic production has been considerably reduced (5-10 ha, instead of 200 ha a few years ago). But in cold regions (Puka district), it is not widespread. Ditylenchus destructor (EU Annex II/A2) is present in both cold and warm regions. Analysis of potato tubers has shown an infestation level of 3.5-12 %. Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) is present in Kroca district (Plase and Lumalas) and Durres district (Rashbull). However, the number of live cysts per 100 g of soil is below one.
In Islas Canarias (ES), Bello and Gonzalez explained that Globodera rostochiensis was first found in Tenerife in 1961, though studies of old documents indicated that it was probably already present in the south of Tenerife in 1959. The nematode was later found (in 1968) in four of the seven Islands (El Hierro, La Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma) and mixed populations of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida were found in Gran Canaria in 1985. In 1987, G. pallida was observed in Tenerife. So far, Globodera species have not been found on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. It must be noted that Ditylenchus dipsaci, D. destructor, Nacobbus aberrans are not present in Islas Canarias.
Proceedings of the EPPO/CIHEAM Conference on Plant Nematology in the Mediterranean Region (Valenzano, IT, 1993-03-30/04-01).
EPPO Bulletin 24(2), 369-432.