Biology of Phyllocnistis citrella in Andalucía (ES)
In Spain, Phyllocnistis citrella (potential EPPO A2 quarantine pest) has been introduced into Andalucía (and Cádiz) in summer 1993. In 1994, observations were made in lemon orchards (Citrus limon cv Primofiori) located in Estepona (near Málaga). This lemon variety has a continuous growth and can therefore support populations of P. citrella throughout the year. In the literature, it can be seen that the life cycle is variable (from 13 to 52 days). In Andalucía, observations made have shown that on the first flush after winter, the life cycle from egg to adult was of 38 days (10 days for the eggs, 12 days for larval stages and 16 days for pupae). On the second flush, the life cycle was shorter (20 days). Concerning natural enemies, two hymenopterous ectoparasites have been found and one has been identified as Nigalius sp. The authors also stressed that the control of the pest should take into account cultural methods, natural enemies, efficient chemical insecticides and control of plant material in nurseries.
Garijo, C.; García, E.J. (1994) [Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton, 1856) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Phyllocnistidae) in citrus growing areas of Andalucía (South Spain): Biology, ecology, and pest control]
Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal - Plagas, 20 (4), 815-826.