EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 03 - 1995 Num. article: 1995/49

Revision of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex

Drew and Hancock have revised the Bactrocera dorsalis complex in Asia, so that fifty-two species are now placed in it (twelve species have been revised and forty new species described). Eight of these species are considered of economic importance: Bactrocera carambolae sp n., B. caryeae, B. dorsalis, B. kandiensis sp n., B. occipitalis, B. papayae sp n., B. philippinensis sp n. and B. pyrifoliae sp n. A key to species is given in this publication, and for each of them, information on host plants and geographical distribution is given.
In addition to this study, CABI has published distribution maps for the eight species of economic importance.

_ Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)
Host plants: wide range of commercial fruits (e.g. Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, Mangifera indica, Musa paradisiaca, Prunus persica) and probably a wide range of endemic rainforest fruits.
Geographical distribution
Asia: Bangladesh (unconfirmed), Bhutan, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan), Hong Kong, India (Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu ; Kashmir (unconfirmed), Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
North America: Hawaii
Oceania: Northern Mariana Islands (eradicated in Rota), Guam

_ Bactrocera carambolae (Carambola fruit fly)
Host plants: Averrhoa carambola, Syzygium samarangense (S. javanica) and secondary hosts: Malpighia punicifolia, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava.
Geographical distribution
Asia: India (Andaman Islands), Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia (Java, Lombok, Sumbawa), Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand (southern part).
South America: French Guyana, Guyana (the Dacus species recently mentioned by IICA/CARAPHIN in Guyana, see RS 95/021, was probably B. carambolae), Suriname.

_ B. caryeae
Host plants: Citrus spp., Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava, Artocarpus integer.
Geographical distribution
Asia: India (south, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka.

_ B. kandiensis
Host plants: Mangifera indica, Garcinia sp.
Geographical distribution
Asia: Sri Lanka

_ B. occipitalis
Host plants: Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava and probably other fleshy fruits.
Geographical distribution
Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia (Sabah), Philippines (Cebu, Luzon, Mindanao, Sulu Islands, Tawitawi Islands).

_ B. papayae
Host plants: wide range of commercial and endemic rainforest fruits.
Geographical distribution
Asia: Indonesia (Bali, Flores, Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Lombok, Sulawesi, Sumbawa, Timor), Malaysia (Sabah, Western Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand.
Oceania: Australia (Queensland: Torres Straits Islands), Christmas Island, Papua New Guinea.

_ B. philippinensis
Host plants: Artocarpus communis, Carica papaya,, Syzygium malaccensis, Mangifera indica, Pouteria duklitan (wild rainforest host).
Geographical distribution
Asia: Philippines (Cebu, Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, Panay).

_ B. pyrifoliae
Host plants: Baccaurea ramiflora, Prunus persica, Psidium guajava, Pyrus pyrifolia.
Geographical distribution
Asia: Thailand (north).


Drew, R.A.I.; Hancock, D.L. (1994) The Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Asia.
Bulletin of Entomological Research Supplement Series, Supplement No.2, CABI, Wallingford, GB, 68 p.

CIE (1994) Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A, No. 109 (3rd revision), Nos. 546-553. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.