Situation of Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil
Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) is present in Brazil where it causes plum leaf scald and citrus variegated chlorosis, and more recently it has been found on coffee (see EPPO RS 96/169). So far, Pierce disease of grapevine has not been observed in Brazil. In South America, X. fastidiosa is present in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay (new record according to the EPPO Secretariat - Leite Jr, 1996). Plum leaf scald was observed at the beginning of the 1970s in the southern States of Brazil (Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Santa Catarina). Citrus variegated chlorosis was observed in 1987 in the north-east of São Paulo State and in the region of triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State) (Carvalho, M.L.V, 1996). The disease then spread to practically all citrus-growing areas in the country (Goiás, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Sergipe) and was observed very recently in Santa Catarina State (Leite, Jr et al., 1996). Studies on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by leafhoppers in citrus orchards have been carried out. The bacterium is transmitted in a persistant, non-circulative way by Cicadellidae and Cercopidae. In citrus orchards, it was observed that several insects i.e. Dilobopterus costalimai, Acrogonia terminalis and Oncometopia sp. are able to transmit the disease (Lopes, et al., 1996).
The bacterium has been observed on coffee near Campinas (São Paulo, Minas Gerais). Preliminary studies (Ueno ; Leite Jr, 1996), have shown that the isolates from coffee and citrus seem to be slightly different.
EPPO note: The EPPO record for X. fastidiosa in South America should now read:
South America: Argentina, Brazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio do Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe), Paraguay, Venezuela.
Fitopatologia Brazileira, 21 (suplemento), 448 pp.
Abstracts of papers presented at the XXIX Congresso Brasileiro de Fitologia, Campo Grande, MS, 1996-08-11/16
Carvalho, M.L.V. (1996) [Present situation of citrus variegated chlorosis and control strategies]. p 328.
Leite Jr, R.P. (1996) [Plum leaf scald: the disease and its causal agent Xylella fastidiosa.], 327-328.
Leite Jr, R.P.; Huang, G.F.; Ueno, B. (1996) [Occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis caused by Xylella fastidiosa in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil.], 335-336.
Lopes, J.R.S.; Beretta,; M.J.G.; Harakava, R.; Almeida, R.P.P.; Krügner, R.; Garcia Jr, A. (1996) [Confirmation of leafhopper transmission of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis.], p 343.
Ueno, B.; Leite Jr, R.P. (1996) [Studies on the variablility of Xylella fastidiosa strains established from coffee and citrus based on the analysis of whole-cell proteins.], p 341.