EPPO Distribution List for Burkholderia solanacearum
At the beginning of 1996, EPPO has sent out a questionnaire to all its member countries to clarify the situation of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum in Europe. Answers received appear in EPPO RS 96/002, 96/022 and 96/090. As a consequence, its distribution list can be modified as follows.
EPPO Distribution list: Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum
B. solanacearum is widespread in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate areas throughout the world. For the EPPO region, it is mainly race 3 which is of importance, since this so-called low-temperature strain is adapted to cooler climates in the highlands of the tropics and in the Mediterranean area. Its occurrence has now also been reported from temperate zones, and in particular race 3 has reported from a number of European countries in the 1990s. The distribution is given below separately for B. solanacearum as a whole (except race 3), for confirmed or possible records of race 3, and for records of race 2 (causing Moko disease).
B. solanacearum (except race 3)
EPPO region: Denmark (found but not established in ornamental Musa), Netherlands (race 1 found incidentally in ornamental turmeric (Curcuma) in the glasshouse, imported from Thailand), Germany (intercepted only), Russia (reported on various crops, e.g. soybean, other than the hosts of race 3; status doubtful).
Asia: Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China (widespread), Georgia, Hong Kong, India (widespread), Indonesia (widespread), Iran, Japan, Korea Democratic People's Republic, Korea Republic, Malaysia (widespread), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia (Far East), Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Viet Nam.
Africa: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
North America: Canada (found but not established on tomato and pelargonium in Ontario only), Mexico, USA (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, North Carolina).
Central America and Caribbean: Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago.
South America: Argentina, Belize, Brazil (widespread), Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Oceania: American Samoa, Australia (widespread), Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu.
Race 3 of B. solanacearum (records of unspecified races on potato in the EPPO region are treated as probable records of race 3). The bacterium is under eradication wherever it has occurred in the EU, and in most EPPO countries.
EPPO region: Algeria (probable), Austria (probable, isolated incidents in 1995), Belarus (unconfirmed), Belgium (single outbreak in 1992; not found since 1994), Bulgaria (probable, found in the 1940/50s but not established), Cyprus (found in the 1950s but not established), Egypt, Finland (intercepted only), France (isolated incidents in 1995), Greece (including Crete), Israel (found at one site in 1970s but eradicated), Italy (found in the 1950s; isolated incidents in 1995), Latvia (old unconfirmed records; now absent), Lebanon (probable), Libya (probable), Moldova (probable), Morocco (old unconfirmed records, never found on potato; now absent), Netherlands (isolated incidents in early 1990s, several outbreaks in 1995), Poland (old unconfirmed reports from 1940s; now absent), Portugal (isolated incidents on mainland in 1995; old unconfirmed report in Madeira, now absent), Romania (reported from symptoms only in 1950s; now absent), Spain (probable, found in 1981 but not established, in Canary Islands only; never found on mainland, the report in the 1st edition of Quarantine Pests for Europe of an earlier, now eradicated, presence was erroneous), Sweden (probable, found on S. dulcamara in the 1970s and eradicated), Tunisia (old unconfirmed records; not found in recent surveys), Turkey, UK (single outbreak in potato in England in 1993; not since reported in potato, but still found in S. dulcamara), Ukraine (old unconfirmed records; now absent) and Yugoslavia (probable).
Asia: China (recorded on potato in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Jiangsu and Zhejiang), Cyprus (see above), India, Indonesia (Java), Iran, Israel (see above), Japan, Nepal, Philippines (probable), Turkey.
Africa: Algeria (probable), Burundi, Egypt, Kenya, Libya (probable), Morocco (see above), South Africa, Tunisia (see above) Zambia.
North America: Mexico.
Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica.
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay.
Race 2 of B. solanacearum (causing Moko disease of bananas)
EPPO region: Libya.
Asia: India (West Bengal), Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam.
Africa: Ethiopia, Libya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia.
North America: Mexico, USA (Florida).
Central America and Caribbean: Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic (unconfirmed), El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago.
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela.
These distribution lists replace all previous published EPPO Distribution Lists on Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum!
EPPO Secretariat, 1996-10.