New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Dacus ciliatus (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 List) occurs in Oman (Kaakeh et al., 2007). Present, no details.
Elsinoe australis (EU Annexes) occurs in the Republic of Korea and it corresponds to a new pathotype affecting Citrus natsudaidai (Hyun et al., 2009). Present, no details.
Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae – EPPO Alert List) occurs in the United Arab Emirates (Kaakeh et al., 2007). Present, no details.
Puccinia hemerocallidis (EPPO A1 List) is reported for the first time from Colombia (Pardo-Cardona, 2006). Present, first reported in 2006.
Stenocarpella maydis (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Uganda. Surveys carried out in 2002/2003 in 11 maize-growing districts of the country showed that the disease incidence ranged from 2.5% to 32.5% (Bigirwa et al., 2007). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
The presence of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (EPPO A2 List) was observed in 2006 on the Island of Rhodos (Greece), on tomato crops. These field and glasshouse crops were also infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Geminivirus – EPPO A2 List) (Papayiannis et al., 2008).
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (EPPO A1 List) was discovered in 1979 in the southeast of Kansas (US). Since then, pine wilt disease has moved westwards at approximately 15 km per year, killing thousands of pines (Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris), and is now present approximately halfway across the state (Kennelly et al., 2009).
In Turkey, surveys have been carried out during 2006-2008 on citrus blight disease (EPPO A1 List) in the Eastern Mediterranean region and confirmed the presence of the disease (Kayim and Ciftci, 2009).
In Brazil, huanglongbing caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanus’ (both EPPO A1 List) was first found in the State of São Paulo in March 2004. As of March 2009, it has been reported in 241 municipalities in São Paulo, Paraná and Minas Gerais States (Lopes, 2009).
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (EPPO A1 List) occurs in the Hunan province, China (Ding et al., 2009).
During a survey on viruses of blackberries (Rubus spp.) carried out in Alabama (US), Tomato ringspot virus (Nepovirus - EPPO A2 List) and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus – EPPO A2 List) were detected in commercial plantations (Coneva et al., 2009).
In Argentina, Phakopsora pachyrhizi (EPPO Alert List) was first detected in 2002. It then spread to the Northeast (Entre Rios, Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Formosa and East of Santiago del Estero), to the Northwest (Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Northwest of Santiago del Estero and Southeast of Catamarca) and to the Pampa region (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, and Cordoba). It is found on soybean crops and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) (Carmona et al., 2007).
In July 2008, the recombinant strain of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in three Prunus trees in a private property at Grimsby, Ontario (Canada). This is the first report of PPV-Rec in North America (only PPV-D and PPV-W had been found, so far). All infected plants were removed and intensive surveys carried out around the infected property did not detect other PPV-infected plants (Thompson et al., 2009).
Tomato ringspot virus (Nepovirus - EPPO A2 List) occurs in Illinois (US). It was detected during surveys on viruses of cucurbit crops carried out from 2004 to 2006 (Jossey and Babadoost, 2008).
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (EPPO A1 List) occurs in Rajasthan, India (Nayak et al., 2009).
- Host plants
Studies carried out in Turkey showed that the following weed species, Cichorium intybus, Heliotropium europaeum and Plantago major, were alternative hosts for Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (Benyvirus - EPPO A2 List) (Yanar et al., 2006).
The presence of Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus, EPPO A2 List) was detected in spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) showing severe stunting, interveinal yellowing, leaf thickening and deformation, in California, USA (Liu et al., 2009).
Natural infection by Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, EPPO Alert List) has been detected in the weed species, Setaria viridis (Poaceae, green foxtail), in Utah, USA (Evans et al., 2009).
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (EPPO A1 List) was detected in plants of Atalantia buxifolia (syn. Severinia buxifolia, Rutaceae) showing symptoms of leaf mottle and yellowing. These plants were growing near a citrus orchard in Guangzhou, China (Deng et al., 2008).
Bigirwa G, Kaaya AN, Sseruwu G, Adipala E, Okanya S (2007) Incidence and severity of maize ear rots and factors responsible for their occurrence in Uganda. Journal of Applied Sciences 7(23), 3780-3785 (abst.).
Carmona M, Gally M, Lopez S (2007) Studies on Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Argentina. Fitopatología 42(1), 25-30 (abst.).
Coneva E, Murphy JF, Boozer R, Velasquez N (2009) Viruses identified in blackberries grown in Alabama. Phytopathology 99(6 suppl.), S24.
Ding F, Deng X, Hong N, Zhong Y, Wang G, Yi G (2009) Phylogenetic analysis of the citrus huanglongbing (HLB) bacterium based on the sequences of 16S rDNA and 16S/23S rDNA intergenic regions among isolates in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology 124(3), 495-503.
Deng X, Lou Z, Feng Z, Li H, Chen J, Civerolo EL (2008) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ from Atalantia buxifolia in Guangdong, China. Plant Disease 92(2), p 314.
Evans CK, Bag S, Frank E, Reeve J, Ransom C, Drost D, Pappu HR (2009) Green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a naturally infected grass host of Iris yellow spot virus in Utah. Plant Disease 93(6), p 670.
Hyun JW, Yi SH, Mac Kenzie SJ, Timmer LW, Kim KS, Kang SK, Kwon HM, Lim HC (2009) Pathotypes and genetic relationship of worldwide collections of Elsinoë spp. causing scab diseases of citrus. Phytopathology 99(6), 721-728.
Jossey S, Babadoost M (2008) Occurrence and distribution of pumpkin and squash viruses in Illinois. Plant Disease 92(1), 61-68.
Kaakeh W, Talukder FA, Aldahmani JH, Maraqa M, Deadman ML, Al-Jabri SA, Al-Saadi A, Al-Raeesi AA, Al-Hasani H, Al-Suhbhi L, Bosamrah AA (2007) Assessment of pest and pesticide trends in vegetables crops in the United Arab Emirates and Sultanate of Oman. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 50(5), 346-351 (abst.).
Kayim M, Ciftci MA (2009) A survey for citrus blight disease in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Phytopathology 99(6), S62.
Kennelly M, O’Mara J, Todd T, Griffin J, Appel J, Strine J, McDonnell T (2009) Integrated community outreach programming to prevent spread of pine wilt into western Kansas. Phytopathology 99(6 suppl.), S63.
Liu HY, Sears JL, Mou B (2009) Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a new natural host of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in California. Plant Disease 93(6), p 673.
Lopes S (2009) Current HLB research in Brazil. Phytopathology 99(6), S 156.
Nayak D, Reddy PR, Nayak P (2009) Variability in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the incitant of bacterial blight disease of rice. Journal of Plant Protection Research 49(1), 15-26.
Papayiannis LC, Brown JK, Hadjistylli M, Katis NI (2008) Bemisia tabaci biotype B associated with tomato yellow leaf curl disease epidemics on Rhodes Island, Greece. Phytoparasitica 36(1), 20-22.
Pardo-Cardonna (2006) [Uredinales of cultivated flowers in Colombia]. Revista – Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín 59(1), 3335-3353 (abst.).
Thompson D, Varga A, De Costa H, Birch C, Glasa M, James D (2009) First report of Plum pox virus recombinant strain on Prunus spp. in Canada. Plant Disease 93(6), p 674.
Yanar Y, Kutluk ND, Erkan S (2006) Alternative weed hosts of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and Beet soil borne virus in North East of Turkey. International Journal of Virology 2(1), 50-54 (abst.).