New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Mali, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List) is commonly found on potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), aubergine (Solanum melongena), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Recent studies showed that R. solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 has a wide distribution in Mali. It was detected in samples collected from fields of potato, pepper, aubergine, tobacco and tomato near Baguineda, Sonityeni, Sotuba, Sikasso and Koulikoro. R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 was not detected (Thera et al., 2010).
Puccinia hemerocallidis (EPPO A1 List) was detected on daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) in the South-Western part of the state of Bahia. According to the EPPO Secretariat this is the first record in Brazil (Menezes et al., 2008). Present, no details.
The NPPO of Finland reported in 2010 the presence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (Potyvirus) on its territory. The virus was found on plants of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in one glasshouse. The origin of the disease outbreak could not be identified. All infected plants were destroyed (NPPO of Finland, 2010-08). Present, under eradication.
- Detailed records
In Calabria, Southern Italy, a survey on Citrus tristeza virus (Closterovirus, CTV – EPPO A2 List) has been carried out since 2006. Citrus samples were collected from nurseries and orchards in 5 provinces of Calabria. CTV was not detected in the citrus-growing areas of Catanzaro or Crotone, but it was detected in 3 orchards in Cosenza, 3 orchards in Vibo Valentia and 12 orchards in Reggio Calabria. CTV was detected in a few plantlets in 2 citrus nurseries located near the main areas already infected. Mild strains were prevalent, although there is indication that some CTV strains found in Calabria might be severe. Concerning aphid vectors, Aphis gossypii and A. spiraecola were the most commonly found species; Toxoptera citricidus (EPPO A2 List) was not detected (Albanese et al., 2010).
In 2010, the NPPO of Italy reported the presence of Meloidogyne incognita in Emilia-Romagna region. The nematode was detected in 2 samples of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. ‘Hermes’) produced for industrial processing, in a farm located in the province of Bologna (NPPO of Italy, 2010).
In 2010, the NPPO of Italy reported the presence of Phoracantha recurva (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) in Lazio region. In Italy, this eucalyptus pest has already been reported in Calabria, Puglia, Sardinia, and Sicilia (NPPO of Italy, 2010).
The NPPO of Italy reported the presence of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) in Emilia-Romagna. PPV was detected on peach (Prunus persica cvs ‘Kalos 1’; ‘Kalos 3’ and ‘Ufo 3’) in a plot of mother trees located in the municipality of Brisighella (Ravenna province). These plants had been planted in spring 2009. All infected trees were immediately destroyed, as along with trees located in their immediate vicinity (NPPO of Italy, 2010).
Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus – EPPO A2 List) was detected in 2006 in Sardegna (Italy) on artichoke (Testa et al., 2008).
Oleander leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time in Louisiana (US) in 2008 (Singh et al., 2010).
- Host plants
A natural infection of Abies magnifica by Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List) has been observed in a single tree grown in a Christmas tree plantation in California (US). This infected tree (1 m tall) was located near the edge of the plantation, beneath an overstory of Umbellularia californica trees which were also infected. The completion of Kochs’ postulates confirmed that A. magnifica can host P. ramorum, but the impact of the disease within the native range of this conifer species is still unknown (Chastagner and Riley, 2010).
In India, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (EPPO A1 List) has been detected in Citrus macroptera trees which were showing typical symptoms of huanglongbing (Das and Kumar, 2010).
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 list) has been found on rhizomes of Maranta arundinacea (Marantaceae - arrowroot) in China. In July 2009, M. arundinacea plants cultivated in a field in Haikou (Hainan province) showed symptoms of decline, including stunting and yellows, as well as severe root galling (Rhuo et al., 2010).
As reported in EPPO RS 2010/101, two outbreaks of Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List) were detected on glasshouse tomatoes in Sardegna (IT). The NPPO of Italy confirmed these findings but explained that eradication measures were subsequently taken (destruction of infected plants, disinfection of premises, soil and irrigation water) and that the pathogen could no longer be found. The NPPO of Italy now considers that these outbreaks in Sardegna have been eradicated (NPPO of Italy, 2010).
- Denied records
PQR (version 4.6, 2007) erroneously mentioned the presence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanum’ (associated with huanglongbing – EPPO A1 List) in Paraguay. When tracing the original sources, it appeared that this was an error in data entry. This will be corrected in the next version of PQR which is currently under development. As officially confirmed by the NPPO, huanglongbing has never been found in Paraguay (NPPO of Paraguay, 2010).
The NPPO of Argentina stated that the earlier records of presence of Anastrepha obliqua and A. serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) on its territory are now invalid. The record of A. serpentina which appeared in Norrbom et al. (1988) was in fact based on a misidentification. Concerning A. obliqua, the fruit fly specimens considered in the publication of de Manero et al. (1989) were re-examined by Dr Eng. Norma Vaccaro who concluded that none of them were A. obliqua (but were A. fraterculus, A. dissimilis or Ceratitis capitata). Finally, the NPPO stated that both A. obliqua and A. serpentina have never been found during the regular surveys on fruit flies which are carried out in Argentina (NPPO of Argentina, 2010).
Hanssen et al. (2010) have demonstrated that Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO Alert List) can be transmitted by tomato seeds, highlighting the risk of using seeds from PepMV-infected plants and further spreading the disease. Other studies have indicated, although still in a preliminary way, that PepMV might be transmitted by a fungus vector, Olpidium virulentus (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010).
Albanese G, Schimio R, Fontana A, Ferreti L, Palmeri V, Campolo O, Barba M (2010) Assessment of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) incidence in Calabria, southern Italy: results of a three-year survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 49(1), 27-34.
Alfaro-Fernández A, Córdoba-Sellés MC, Herrera-Vásquez JA, Cebrián MC, Jordá C (2010) Transmission of Pepino mosaic virus by the fungal vector Olpidium virulentus. Journal of Phytopathology 158(4), 217-226.
Chastagner GA, Riley KL (2010) First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting California red fir in California. Plant Disease 94(9), p 1170.
Das AK, Kumar A (2010) First report of the huanglongbing bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infecting satkara (Citrus macroptera) in India. Plant Disease 94(3), p 375.
Hanssen IM, Mumford R, Blystad DR, Cortez I, Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Hristova D, Pagán I, Peireira AM, Peters J, Pospieszny H, Ravnikar M, Stijger I, Tomassoli L, Varveri C, van der Vlugt R, Nielsen SL (2010) Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology 126(2), 145-152.
Norrbom, A. L.; Carroll, L. E.; Thompson, F. C.; White, I. M.; Freidberg, A. (1998) Systematic database of names, pp. 65-251. In: Fruit fly expert identification system and systematic information database. Myia 9, 524 pp.
NPPO of Finland (2010-08).
NPPO of Italy (2010-05).
NPPO of Paraguay (2010-12).
Manero de EA, Muruaga de l'Argentier S, Vilte HA (1989) [Fruit flies (Diptera, Trypetidae) found on peach trees of Leon and Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy Province, Argentina]. Cirpon VII, 7-26.
Menezes SP, Pereira TS, Santos A, de Novaes QS, Junghans DT, de Oliveira AC (2008) [Occurrence of Puccinia hemerocallidis on hemerocallis in Bahia State, Brazil]. Magistra 20(4), 403-405 (abst.).
Singh R, Ferrin DM, Huang Q (2010) First report of Xylella fastidiosa associated with oleander leaf scorch in Louisiana. Plant Disease 94(2), p 274.
Testa M, Marras PM, Turina M, Ciuffo M (2008) [Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on globe artichoke in Sardinia]. Protezione delle Colture no. 2, 34-36 (abst.).
Thera AT, Jacobsen BJ, Neher OT (2010) Bacterial wilt of Solanaceae caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 in Mali. Plant Disease 94(3), p 372.
Zhuo K, Hu MX, Liao JL, Rui K (2010) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on arrowroot in China. Plant Disease 94(2), p 270.