19th Session of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC)
The 19th Session of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission took place in 1995-11-27/12-01 in the Philippines. Member countries of APPPC were invited to present their national phytosanitary situations, including new outbreaks. The EPPO Secretariat has selected some new or detailed records concerning quarantine pests.
During 1993, Bactrocera papayae (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) spread to several Torres Strait islands from Papoua New Guinea. An eradication programme was implemented, and the fruit fly was eliminated from all infested islands except three. But it appeared again on a further four islands in 1995. An eradication campaign was again carried out in 1995 and will continue until July 1996. In October, B. papayae was observed near Cairns (Queensland) and the surrounding districts. An eradication programme is being implemented.
An outbreak of Xanthomonas fragariae (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) occurred in the Adelaide Hills (South Australia) in March 1994. This is the second outbreak of the disease in Australia. The disease was confined to three growers. Affected plants were destroyed and no further infections have been found.
Bemisia tabaci B biotype (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was found at Darwin (Northern Territory) in November 1994 (see EPPO RS 95/139) and then in New South Wales and Queensland. It has not become a pest of cotton at present but remains a threat to horticulture.
Spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) was first detected in the Torres Strait in 1991. In 1993, it was found on Thursday Island. Eradication was not successful and Encarsia haitiensis was introduced as a biocontrol agent. In March 1995, the pest was detected on Cape York (Queensland). Eradication was not successful and the pest is considered as established in this region.
Severe outbreaks of Helicoverpa armigera (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) were observed in the northern cotton-growing regions, especially in Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces in 1992 (see EPPO RS 95/112 and 94/056). These outbreaks led to 20 % decrease of cotton production in 1992. In the following cotton season, the pest occurred practically in the whole region of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. The pest was recorded as present on 4 million hectares (corresponding to 75 % of the total cotton area) during 1994 and 1995. Integrated pest management programmes have been implemented to control the pest, and yield increases have been obtained.
- Hong Kong
Bemisia tabaci* (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was found on tomato. Colletotrichum acutatum* (EU Annex II/A2) was observed on Chrysanthemum.
During recent years leaf curl disease of cotton (probably cotton leaf curl geminivirus) was reported from certain pockets in Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab.
- Republic of Korea
Newly recorded pests in Korea are the following: Erwinia chrysanthemi (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) on Phalenopsis in 1991; Verticillium dahliae* on tomato in 1994, Frankliniella occidentalis* (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) and Thrips palmi (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) on ornamentals in 1993, Liriomyza trifolii* (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) on ornamentals in 1994.
T. palmi was first detected in a pepper plant, in a glasshouse on Cheju island in 1993, and is still present in the area. Eradication measures are being implemented.
An outbreak of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) has been found in 1993, in summer rice crops in the region of Mandalay. In February 1994, chilli plants (Capsicum frutescens) were wilted due to Pseudomonas solanacearum (EPPO A2 quarantine pest), in the district of Bago. These plants were grown from seeds imported from Thailand.
- New Zealand
A single male Bactrocera tryoni (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) has been found in late May 1995. Subsequent intensive monitoring provided no evidence of an established population.
Ciborinia camelliae* (EU Annex II/A1) was recorded on Camellia japonica in Wellington, in September 1993.
Outbreaks of cotton leaf curl geminivirus were observed on cotton in Punjab province. The virus was first observed in 1967 on alternate hosts. In 1988 only 60 ha were reported as affected; in 1990, 200 ha were concerned. The situation became alarming in 1991 when 14.000 ha of cotton were damaged. In 1992, the virus spread to 500.000 ha and caused serious losses. In 1993, the disease spread to the whole cotton belt in Punjab with varying intensity. However, in 1994 there has been no substantial damage on cotton due to the introduction of tolerant varieties and better control methods against its vector, Bemisia tabaci.
In 1994, a serious outbreak of Helicoverpa armigera was observed on cotton in Punjab.
Citrus greening bacterium (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) is present in Vietnam (see EPPO RS 94/156). The disease is present on 3.000 ha of citrus in the Mekong delta and causes high losses to citrus growers.
* New records.
19th Session of APPPC, 1995-11-27/12-01, Los Baños (PH)