New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Euphorbia mosaic virus (Begomovirus - EU Annexes) has been detected in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico (Hernández-Zepeda et al., 2007). Present, in the Yucatan peninsula.
Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) occurs in the south of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Delić et al., 2007). Present, in the south of the country.
- Detailed records
In Portugal, Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 List) was first observed in 1929 on bark samples collected from branches of Castanea crenata in the Beira Interior Province. These initial infections were probably eradicated, as no further reports were made until 1989 when two outbreaks were found on C. sativa in the Trás-os-Montes province (which is the main chestnut-growing area in Portugal). In recent surveys, C. parasitica was detected across four mainland provinces (Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Beira Interior, Alentejo), Azores (Pico, San Miguel, Terceira) and Madeira (Bragança et al., 2007).
In Belarus, Ditylenchus destructor (EU Annexes) is unevenly distributed and occurs mainly in the region of Minsk (Ilyashenka ; Ivaniuk, 2008).
Heterodera glycines (EPPO A2 List) occurs in the state of Maranhão, Brazil (Cunha et al., 2008).
A survey carried out in Northern Iran showed that Heterodera glycines (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Mazandaran and Golestan provinces, the main soybean-producing areas of the country (Maafi et al., 2008).
In Spain, Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) was first reported in 2006 on peach trees (Prunus persica) in two adjacent localities: Ivars de Noguera (Provincia de Lleida, Cataluña) and Castillonroy (Provincia de Huesca, Aragón). In March 2006, M. fructicola was also found in mummified peach fruits (P. persica cv. ‘Autumn Free’) in orchards located at Sudanell (Provincia de Lleida, Cataluña), approximately 30 km south of the initial findings (De Cal et al., 2009).
In Argentina, Nacobbus aberrans (EPPO A1 List) was detected on potatoes in Jujuy province during surveys carried out in 2003 and 2004 (Muruaga de l’Argentier et al., 2007).
Meloidogyne fallax (EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Victoria, Australia. The nematode was detected on potatoes (Nambiar et al., 2008).
Mycosphaerella pini (EU Annexes) has become frequent in recent years on Pinus nigra and Pinus mugo in the continental part of Slovenia (Jurc, 2007).
Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid – EPPO A2 List) was found in several potato cultivars in Primor’e (Far East of Russia). PSTVd was detected in combination with Potato virus Y (Romanova et al., 2007).
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (EPPO A1 List) occurs in Rajasthan, India (Nayak et al., 2009).
In summer 2004, bacterial leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) was first found in Oklahoma (US) in Ulmus americanus. Additional infections were then reported on other tree species (e.g. Quercus spp., Morus spp., Platanus occidentalis). In July 2008, the bacterium was detected on Vitis labrusca cv. ‘Concord’ showing symptoms of Pierce’s disease. This is the first time that Pierce’s disease is reported from Oklahoma (Smith et al., 2009).
Ascochyta pisi is one of the causal agent of Ascochyta blight of pea (Pisum sativum). The teleomorph of A. pisi has recently been obtained in laboratory conditions and called Didymella pisi sp. nov. (Chilvers et al., 2009).
A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus macromucronatus sp.nov. has recently been described. It was isolated from Taiwanese and Indian packaging wood (Gu et al., 2008). Its separation from other species of the ‘xylophilus’ group is mainly based on female tail shape, spicules size and the mucro length. B. macromucronatus can be differentiated from B. xylophilus, B. mucronatus, B. fraudulentus, B. conicaudatus, B. luxunosae, B. doui and B. singaporensis by molecular tests (RFLP, sequencing of the ITS region).
Bragança H, Simões S, Onofre N, Tenreiro R, Rigling D (2007) Cryphonectria parasitica in Portugal: diversity of vegetative compatibility types, mating types, and occurrence of hypovirulence. Forest Pathology 37(6), 391-402.
Chilvers MI, Rogers JE, Dugan FM, Stewart JE, Chen W, Peever TL (2009) Didymella pisi sp. nov., the teleomorph of Ascochyta pisi. Mycological Research 113(3)391-400.
Cunha RP, Maia GL, Rodacki MEP, da Silva GS, Meyer MC (2008) [Life cycle of the Heterodera glycines race 9 on soybean in Maranhão State, Brazil]. Summa Phytopathologica 34(3), 262-264 (abst.).
De Cal A, Gell I, Usall J, Viñas I, Melgarejo P (2009) First report of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola in peach orchards in Ebro Valley, Spain. Plant Disease 93(7), p 763.
Delić D, Seljak G, Martini M, Ermacora P, Carraro L, Myrta A, Durić G (2007) Surveys for grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bulletin of Insectology 60(2), 369-370.
Gu J, Zheng W, Braasch H, Burgermeister W (2008) Description of Bursaphelenchus macromucronatus sp.n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) in packaging wood from Taiwan and India – a new species in the ‘xylophilus’ group. Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 11(1), 31-40 (abst.).
Hernández-Zepeda C, Idris AM, Carnevali G, Brown JK, Moreno-Valenzuela OA (2007) Preliminary identification of coat protein gene phylogenetic relationships of begomoviruses associated with native flora and cultivated plants from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Virus Genes 35(3), 825-833 (abst.).
Ilyashenka D, Ivaniuk V (2008) Potato stem nematode in Belarus. Žemdirbystė (Agriculture) 95(3), 74-81 (abst.).
Jurc D (2007) [Pines – Pinus spp. Diseases of needles. Lophodermium seditiosum, Mycosphaerella pini, Mycosphaerella dearnessii, Cyclaneusma minus]. Gozdarski Vestnik 65(7/8), 209-224 (abst.).
Maafi ZT, Salati M, Riggs RD (2008) Distribution, population density, race and type determination of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in Iran. Nematology 10(6), 919-924 (abst.).
Muruaga de l’Argentier S, Doucet M, Gallardo C, Lax P, Quintana de Quinteros S (2007) [Detection of detrimental phytophagous nematodes in plots devoted to andine potatoes cultivation in the province of Jujuy, NW Argentina]. Acta Zoologica Lilloanna 51(1), 87-89 (abst.).
Nambiar L, Quader M, Nobbs JM, Cobon JA, Campbell PR, Gulino LM (2008) First record of Meloidogyne fallax in Victoria, Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 3(1), 141-142 (abst.)
Nayak D, Reddy PR, Nayak P (2009) Variability in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the incitant of bacterial blight disease of rice. Journal of Plant Protection Research 49(1), 15-26.
Romanova SA, Volkov Y, Kakareka N, Pleshakova TI, Koslovskaya ZN (2007) Potato disease caused by combined infection with potato spindle tuber viroid and potato virus Y necrotic strain. Russian Agricultural Sciences 33(3), 162-165 (abst.).
Smith DL, Dominiak-Olson J, Sharber CD (2009) First report of Pierce’s disease of grape caused by Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma. Plant Disease 93(7), p 762.