Fireblight in Central Europe
At the 7th EPPO Workshop for phytosanitary inspectors, 1996-10-15/18 which took place in Nitra, Slovakia, several presentations were made on the present situation of Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) in Central Europe.
Erwinia amylovova was first found in parks in Prague in 1986 (EPPO RS 499/06) on Crataegus. Since then and despite eradication measures taken, the disease spread gradually in western, central and eastern Bohemia during the last ten years. The easternmost point of the outbreak is the Svitavy district. Crataegus plants are the most commonly infected hosts before pear, apple and Sorbus. Cydonia, Pyracantha, Cotoneaster and Chaenomeles are sporadically found infected. Any focus of the disease has to be notified to the Czech authorities and strict phytosanitary and eradication measures still continued to be applied.
E. amylovora is absent from Slovakia. The record appearing in PQR (absent, unconfirmed) based on the CABI map should therefore be corrected.
Fireblight was first detected in spring 1996 (EPPO RS 96/106) in 2 orchards near Kecskemét (Bácz-Kiskun county) and plantations were destroyed. Further surveys were conducted in the whole country and other foci were discovered, mainly in the south of the country (Bácz-Kiskun, Békés, Czongrád and Baranya counties). Phytosanitary measures will continue to be applied to try to eradicated the disease and limit its spread within the country.
E. amylovora was observed for the first time in 1966 in the experimental orchard (apple and pear) of the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture at Milobadz (25 km south of Gdansk). Trees were destroyed. Two years later, it was found in pear trees in the Pomological orchard of Skierniewice (central Poland). At the same time, it was discovered again near the Baltic coast (Koszalin Province) in two apple nurseries which were destroyed. Until 1975, it occurred irregularly in isolated foci, mainly along the northern coast. Since 1976, it became established in numerous places across northern Poland, and since 1985 it spread towards the centre of the country. Since the beginning of the 1990s, it has been recorded in a number of places in western, south-western and south-central parts of Poland. However, it was never found in the eastern part of the country. Crataegus is the most frequently infected host plant. Pear and apple are also affected. Other species like Cydonia, Sorbus, Photinia, Pyracantha and Cotoneaster are found infected only sporadically. See also Sobiczewski ; Suski, 1988.
E. amylovora was found for the first time in 1992 (EPPO RS 93/170 and 93/203) and is now present in 16 south-eastern districts and central-northern districts in the country . The main host plants are quince, pear and apple. Phytosanitary measures are applied, such as restrictions imposed on trade and movement of host plants, and destruction of infected plants.
Oral presentations made at the 7th EPPO Workshop for phytosanitary inspectors, Nitra, SK, 1996-10-15/18.
Sobiczewski, P.; Suski, Z.W. (1988), Fireblight in Poland.
Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 18(3), 375-379.