Insect pests of citrus in Lebanon
In Lebanon, a survey was carried out in 1997 in citrus orchards. Fruit crops are located all along the coast, from north to south. The following pests were found:
- Aphids: Aphis gossypii, Aphis citricola are present throughout the season with heavy populations on young shoots. Toxoptera aurantii is present in low number in August-September.
- Scales: Aonidiella aurantii is the most commonly found species. Saissetia oleae and Ceroplastes floridensis can also be abundant.
- Mediterranean fruit fly: Ceratitis capitata (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was observed, particularly in July and October and is still a serious pest.
- Whiteflies: Dialeurodes citri and Parabemisia myricae (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) appeared at the end of the 1980s in Lebanon. Aleurothrixus floccosus was first found in 1992, and it caused in 1992-1993 extremely serious damage. In 1997, whitefly populations were observed at low levels and did not cause damage. These low levels can probably be explained by an efficient control of natural enemies (e.g. Cales noaki which was introduced in Lebanon in 1993).
- Citrus leafminer: Since 1994, Phyllocnistis citrella has been causing heavy damage in orchards and more particularly in nurseries. It still represents a very serious threat to citriculture.
Kfoury, L.; El-Amil, R. (1998) Les insectes ravageurs des agrumes au Liban - La situation en 1997.
Phytoma - La défense des Végétaux, no. 508, 38-39.