Studies on parasitoids of Anastrepha species in Mexico
In Mexico, the distribution of 5 species of parasitic Hymenoptera attacking larvae of 5 species of Anastrepha were examined in fruit tree canopy of 7 species. All studied sites were located in central Veracruz state. The following Anastrepha species were collected from various fruits: Anastrepha alveata (Ximenia americana), A. fraterculus* (EPPO A1 quarantine pest - Psidium guajava), A. ludens (EPPO A1 quarantine pest - Mangifera indica, Citrus sinensis), A. obliqua (EPPO A1 quarantine pest - Spondias mombin, S. purpurea, Mangifera indica, Tapirira mexicana), A. striata** (Psidium guajava). The parasitoids attacking Anastrepha species were the following: Doryctabracon areolatus (on the 5 Anastrepha species), D. crawfordi and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (A. fraterculus, A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata), Utetes anastrephae (A. obliqua), Aganaspis pelleranoi (A. fraterculus, A. ludens, A. striata).
The spatial and temporal distribution of the parasitoids varied with many factors (location within the tree canopy, number of fruit fly larvae in the fruits, fruit size, time during the fruiting period, competition among parasitoids etc.). The intention of this study was not to identify clear correlations between all these uncontrolled factors, but to get better knowledge on the Anastrepha parasitoids and provide directions for further studies in order to determine which parasitoids are best suited to particular climates, floras, seasons and pre-existing parasitoids species.
* detailed record which confirms earlier records (EPPO RS 96/092), although the Mexican Plant Protection Service had declared in 1992 that A. fraterculus records resulted from confusion with A. obliqua.
** the EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on A. striata in Mexico.
Sivinski, J.; Aluja, M.; Lopez, M. (1997) Spatial and temporal distributions of parasitoids of Mexican Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) within the canopies of fruit trees.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90(5), 596-618.